Sunday, January 27, 2019

LTE Attach and Default Bearer Setup Messaging

Prior to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 LTE mobile phone being tracked in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 LTE network cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir is still cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 setup process that enables cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 handset to gain access to network services. This useful guide illustrates cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 steps involved which a CSA investigator should have an understanding, not least of which is knowing S1AP: when cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 IMSI and GUTI are used; S11: The IP assigned to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 mobile station and current location of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 user; and a host of ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r useful information that often crops up in investigations.




LTE Tracking Area Update

This useful guide produced using EventStudio System Designer drives home cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 processes and procedures involved to understand how LTE Tracking Area Update works. Every CSA investigator will need to have knowledge in this area to be able to define in a statement, report or at Court how a mobile phone is tracked whilst switched ON and moving around in an LTE network.

3G Networks position techniques.pdf

For those CSA investigators interested in a skeleton outline on 3G Networks position techniques, this info should help as a starting point.

Cell Site Analysis - location and radio coverage signals

It still holds true with LTE radio coverage that signals arrive in a scattered manner detected at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 mobile phone handset. A good CSA investigator will know how to explain how coverage might inconceivably be thought by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 untrained not to be detected at a particular location, may well be possible due to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 location of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 phone at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 material time.
 
As mentioned in a previous post understanding density of masts in an area must equally be understood not simply from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 point of calls handled by a single mast. There is also cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 instance where a call's start and end masts are different that can be involved, which may involve cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 network having to deal with 'hard handover'. Advancements with 3G and 4G enables calls (data) being handled by several masts delivering data to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 smartphone in a seamless fashion. This maybe due to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 amount of data involved or fast-fading etc. These types of handovers are called 'soft-handover'. When understood correctly cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 use of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se combined masts in soft-handover because cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y are often in very close proximity can narrow down cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 location through improved triangulation (etc.). 
 
 
There is cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 occasion where cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 operator only has one mast in a particular area but several sectors of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 same mast might be used seamlessly for an e.g. data call, and this is called softer-handover. When thinking about soft and softer handover think in terms of 'inter' and 'intra'.
 
 
 
Furcá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365rmore, smartphones, which I call 'ultra-smarts' due to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir increased embedded communications capabilities, use close proximity masts or access points (Wi-Fi) to enable uninterrupted communication and network access. Network operators have deployed microcells, as you (may) know. Microcells deployment help remove cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 burden of signalling and traffic on macro-cells by directing slow-moving mobiles to short range coverage. These microcells can be useful for slow-moving users, walking down cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 high street or located in one area for a period of time. Remaining in an area for a period of time is called 'dwell time'. The latter is a term CSA investigators should know as it can have important bearing upon a case. In some instances, small coverage points have been deployed called pico-cells and nano-cells which can refine location distances between cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 mobile phone and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 cell to a few meters.
 
The 'ultra-smarts' Wi-Fi capability creates an additional attractive proposition for cell site analysis investigations as cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 investigator will need to be keenly aware that dual usage of cellular and Wi-Fi coverage can produce a rich resource of location positioning. The image below has been used at this blog before but it is still a useful reminder what should be considered when conducting radio surveys.
 
 
And if furcá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r illustration is needed to illuminate a survey assessment criteria cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n hopefully this image below will provide cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 investigator with some ideas.
 
 
Cell site analysis has evolved so much more from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 days of GSM and early days of WCDMA. It is not enough to use call records and CDRs in isolation and/or going to a particular geographical location to conduct tests at one single location; cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 wider area needs to be taken into context as to what impact that might have on a call or calls being handled by a cell or cells etc. (mast, masts or access points).
 

LTE Positionng Methods

 
As with GSM and WCDMA, LTE is no different. Cell Site Analysis investigators still need to have a general understanding of location positioning methods in order to refine how using static and drive test radio test measurements do not clearly define radio boundaries alone. There are a enormous range of strategies that can be adopted and should be adopted based on a case-by-case basis.
 
If network operator adopted methods for determining location (and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y have cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 infrastructure to do that) an external investigator cannot use CDRs and radio test measurements to pinpoint call location at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 material time. It still requires knowing how each operator has planned cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir network radio coverage and still does no harm to request single cell prediction maps and best server plots -density maps.
 
 
Remember cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 density-map is important as it provides an underlying indication of potential cell usage or handover.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Sunday, September 28, 2014

CSA - Site Survey Method/LTE SIBtype1

CSA - Site Survey Method/LTE SIBtype1

Before continuing with GSM/GERAN System Information Message Types, thanks for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 enquiries regarding LTE and requests for an example of a systeminformationblocktype(SIB). It would appear cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re is a requirement to explore LTE and UMTS SIBs some more before moving on to GSM/GERAN. I will do my best to answer some of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 enquiries.

For educational purposes only, followingcá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 masterinformationblock(MIB) having been decoded by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 UE a useful example of content for systeminformationblocktype1 was illustrated by Ralf Kreher and Karsten Gaenger (c)2011 using Tektronix K2Air as an example when conducting a LTE investigation into signalling troubleshooting and optimisation.



+-------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------+
|ID Name |Comment or Value |
+-------------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------------+
|56 05:43:34,555,032 RRC-UU K2AIR-PHY PDSCH LTE-RLC/MAC MAC-TM-PDU (DL) LTE-RRC_BCCH_DL_SCH
systemInformationBlockType1 |
|Tektronix K2Air LTE PHY Data Message Header (K2AIR-PHY) PDSCH (= PDSCH Message) |
|1 PDSCH Message |
|1.1 Common Message Header |
|Protocol Version |0 |
|Transport Channel Type |DL-SCH |
|Physical Channel Type |PDSCH |
|System Frame Number |454 |
|Direction |Downlink |
|Radio Mode |FDD |
|Internal use |0 |
|Status |Original data |
|Reserved |0 |
|Physical Cell ID |0 |
|UE ID/RNTI Type |SI-RNTI |
|Subframe Number |5 |
|UE ID/RNTI Value |'ffff'H |
|1.2 PDSCH Header |
|CRC report |CRC ok |
|HARQ process number |0 |
|Reserved |0 |
|Transport Block Indicator |single TB info |
|Reserved |0 |
|1.2.1 Transport Block#1 Information |
|Transport Block#1 Size |144 |
|Modulation Order DL 1 |QPSK |
|New Data Indicator DL 1 |new data |
|Redundancy Version DL 1 |1 |
|Reserved |0 |
|Modulation Scheme Index DL 1 |5 |
|Reserved |0 |
|1.2.2 Transport Block Data |
|TB1 Mac-PDU Data |40 51 00 21 00 00 20 00 10 0c 14 01 10
21 00 68 22 b6 |
|Padding |'0068'H |
|1.3 Additional Call related Info |
|Number Of Logical Channel Informations |1 |
|1.3.1 Logical Channel Information |
|LCID |0 |
|RLC Mode |Transparent Mode |
|Radio Bearer ID |0 |
|Radio Bearer Type |Control Plane (Signalling) |
|Spare |0 |
|Spare |0 |
|Logical Channel Type |BCCH |
|Call ID |'fffffff5'H |
|3GPP LTE-RLC/MAC Rel.8 (MAC TS 36.321 V8.5.0, 2009-03, RLC TS 36.322 V8.5.0, 2009-03) (LTE-RLC/
MAC) MAC-TM-PDU (DL) (= MAC PDU (Transparent Content Downlink)) |
|1 MAC PDU (Transparent Content Downlink) |
|MAC Transparent Data |40 51 00 21 00 00 20 00 10 0c 14 01 10
21 00 68 22 b6 |
|RRC (BCCH DL SCH) 3GPP TS 36.331 V8.5.0 (2009-03) (LTE-RRC_BCCH_DL_SCH)
systemInformationBlockType1 (= systemInformationBlockType1) |
|bCCH-DL-SCH-Message |
|1 message |
|1.1 Standard |
|1.1.1 systemInformationBlockType1 |
|1.1.1.1 cellAccessRelatedInfo |
|1.1.1.1.1 plmn-IdentityList |
|1.1.1.1.1.1 pLMN-IdentityInfo |
|1.1.1.1.1.1.1 plmn-Identity |
|1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 mcc |
|1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 mCC-MNC-Digit |2 |
|1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 mCC-MNC-Digit |9 |
|1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 mCC-MNC-Digit |9 |
|1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 mnc |
|1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 mCC-MNC-Digit |0 |
|1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.2 mCC-MNC-Digit |0 |
|1.1.1.1.1.1.2 cellReservedForOperatorUse |notReserved |
|1.1.1.1.2 trackingAreaCode |'0000'H |
|1.1.1.1.3 cellIdentity |'2000100'H |
|1.1.1.1.4 cellBarred |notBarred |
|1.1.1.1.5 intraFreqReselection |notAllowed |
|1.1.1.1.6 csg-Indication |false |
|1.1.1.2 cellSelectionInfo |
|1.1.1.2.1 q-RxLevMin |-65 |
|1.1.1.3 freqBandIndicator |1 |
|1.1.1.4 schedulingInfoList |
|1.1.1.4.1 schedulingInfo |
|1.1.1.4.1.1 si-Periodicity |rf16 |
|1.1.1.4.1.2 sib-MappingInfo |
|1.1.1.4.2 schedulingInfo |
|1.1.1.4.2.1 si-Periodicity |rf32 |
|1.1.1.4.2.2 sib-MappingInfo |
|1.1.1.4.2.2.1 sIB-Type |sibType3 |
|1.1.1.4.2.2.2 sIB-Type |sibType6 |
|1.1.1.4.3 schedulingInfo |
|1.1.1.4.3.1 si-Periodicity |rf32 |
|1.1.1.4.3.2 sib-MappingInfo |
|1.1.1.4.3.2.1 sIB-Type |sibType5 |
|1.1.1.5 si-WindowLength |ms20 |
|1.1.1.6 systemInfoValueTag |22 |

This form of analysis provides an excellent grounding when conducting ICCSA.Why would that be so? Familiarisation with this education content enables knowledge to be gleaned from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 real-world SIBs detected by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 UE at particular locations. Importantly information that informs cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 UE about varying cells benefits an investigation.  For instance, we know that when cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 UE has successfully received and decoded MIB and SIBs type 1 and 2 etc during its travels SIB type9 might identify (H)eNobeB that is available. To be clear that latter information provides two unique pieces of information. (1) The identity of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 radio source (2) it is location specific to tens of metres in an area thus refines location identification where cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 UE would have dwelt (dwell time - slow moving UE).

It also refines cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 location for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 investigation and even where SIB1 and SIB2 provide a wider location area cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 UE detection (SIB type9) of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 (H)eNobeB coverage would have cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 effect of demonstrating  pre-requisite requirement of proximity to an area. Now readers could point out how would cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 person conducting cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ICCSA know about cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 (H)eNobeB in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 first place if call/data records are not available. For those situations where immediate is important aspect of current bandit surveillance cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 UE stores relevant information of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 radio resources in an area for up to 3-hours after which old data are discarded. For a live UE acquisition this time frame could be useful. For a UE switched off (e.g. at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 target site area) retains that information and requires extraction and harvest without invoking UE power up and network detection and registration.

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

CSA - Site Survey Method/LTE-UMTS SIBs

There is a huge volume of materials and standards to be considered when undertaking study or work as an InnerCity CSA (ICCSA) expert, technician or student. However, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 materials and standards referred to at my webblog aim to control cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 flow of such volumous information and provide instead an easy guide to seeking out cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 information experts, technicians or students can be exposed to when involved with ICCSA.

A highly defined smartphone etc can be offered services by a range of mobile network access systems e.g. GSM, GERAN, UTRAN, e-UTRAN etc when switched ON and actively in use or in idle mode. Access system information for LTE and UMTS are mapped in System Information Blocks (SIBs). When conducting ICCSA test measurement it is useful to identify which broadcasted SIBs contain data to help understand cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 survey results. Knowing cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 content allocated to SIBs can assist enormously in interpretation and when considering cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 propositions highlighted in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 previous discussion thread - http://cellsiteanalysis.blogspot.co.uk/2014/08/csa-site-survey-method4cell-types.html



Below are commonly referred to LTE/UMTS SIBs. GSM and GERAN data are mapped to System Information Types that will be given in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 next discsssion.

LTE System Information Blocks
***************************
SIB 1 contains PLMN identity, tracking area code, and CI of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 broadcasting cell. Q-RxLevMin minimumRSRP threshold that a broadcasting cell should be measured before initial cell selection, and later for random access performed by UE. SIB Mapping Info included to inform cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 UE which SIBs are transmitted and how cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y are scheduled.

SIB 2 contains timers and constants, access barring information, UL frequency information, and UL bandwidth information.

SIB 3 contains parameters for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 cell reselection procedure.

SIB 4 contains neighbour cell information for intra-frequency cell reselection.

SIB 5 contains information for interfrequency cell reselection.

SIB 6 contains information for inter-RAT cell reselection to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 UTRAN.

SIB 7 contains information for inter-RAT cell reselection to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 GERAN.

SIB 8 contains information for inter-RAT cell reselection to CDMA2000.

SIB 9 is used to broadcast cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 home eNB name (HNB name).

SIB 10 and SIB 11 can be used to broadcast warning information to subscribers (e.g. tsunami warnings).

SIB 12 assigned for Commercial Mobile Alerting System (CMAS) information usage


UMTS System Information Blocks
*****************************
SIB 1 NAS System Information, UE Timer and counter for RRC idle and connected mode

SIB 2 URA Identity

SIB 3 Parameter for Cell Selection and Cell Reselection

SIB 4 Parameter for Cell Selection and Cell Reselection in RRC connected mode

SIB 5 Parameter for configuration of Common Physical Channel (CPCH) of actual cell

SIB 6 Parameter for configuration of Common and shared Physical Channel of actual cell

SIB 7 Fast changing parameter for uplink Interference and Dynamic Persistent Level

SIB 8 Static CPCH Information of actual cell [FDD only]

SIB 9 CPCH Information of actual cell [FDD only]

SIB 10 Information for UE, which DCH is controlled by Dynamic Resource Allocation Control Procedure

SIB 11 Measurement Control Information of actual cell

SIB 12 Measurement Control Information of actual cell in RRC connected mode

SIB 13 ANSI-41 System Information

SIB 13.1 ANSI-41 RAND Information

SIB 13.2 ANSI-41 User Zone Identification

SIB 13.3 ANSI-41 Private Neighbour List

SIB 13.4 ANSI-41 Global Service Redirection

SIB 14 UL outer loop power control information for common and dedicated physical channels in RRC idle and connected mode

SIB 15 Information for UE positioning method

SIB 15.1 Information for UE GPS positioning method with Differential Global Positionig System (DGPS) correction

SIB 15.2 Information for GPS Navigation-Model

SIB 15.3 Information for GPS Almanac, ionospheric and UTC Model

SIB 15.4 Ciphering Information of SIB 15.5

SIB 15.5 Information for OTDOA UE positioning method

SIB 16 Information of Radio Bearer, transport and physical channels for UE in RRC idle or connection mode in case of Handover to UTRA

SIB 17 Fast changing parameter for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 configuration of Shared Physical Channels in RRC conected mode [FDD only]

SIB 18 PLMN Identifies neighbour cells