repugnant markets.See also my Game cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ory, experimental economics, and market design page. I have a general-interest book on market design: Who Gets What--and Why The subtitle is "The new economics of matchmaking and market design."' property='og:description'/>
Showing posts with label risk. Show all posts
Showing posts with label risk. Show all posts

Friday, January 10, 2020

Risk attitudes in transplantation--cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n and now

Organ transplantation has become much more organized since its early days, for both good and ill.

Today cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re's a good deal of regulation of transplant centers, which need very high success rates (one year graft survival rates in particular) to remain in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 good graces of government and private payers.

It wasn't always so.

Here's a quote from Lloyd Ratner's Message from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ASTS President for November 2019:

"In cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 transplant world, this [perseverance] is best exemplified by Thomas Starzl’s ceaseless quest to make liver transplantation a reality. Between March 1963 and May 1967, Dr. Starzl performed his first 7 liver transplants at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 University of Colorado, all of whom died in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 peri-operative period. The longest survivor succumbed after 23 days to “sepsis, bile peritonitis, and liver failure.” Despite this disastrous start, Dr. Starzl persevered. Starzl’s eighth patient, transplanted for hepatocellular carcinoma, lived 400 days before dying from carcinomatosis. By 1990 cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 programs that Dr. Starzl directed in Pittsburgh would perform 571 liver transplants in a single year and would train many of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 world’s leaders in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 field."

Monday, January 1, 2018

Is cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re an equivalence between (not) paying kidney donors and boxers or football players?

Kim Krawiecz makes a point, in several installments:

December 21, 2017
If You Oppose Paying Kidney Donors, You Should Oppose Paying Football Players And Boxers Too 
"Having concluded that simply advocating for compensated kidney donation was not sufficiently controversial, Phil Cook and I are now turning our sights on professional sports – specifically, professional football and boxing. In a piece just posted to SSRN, we contrast cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 compensation ban on organ donation with cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 legal treatment of football, boxing, and ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r violent sports in which both acute and chronic injuries to participants are common. While cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re is some debate about how best to regulate cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se sports in order to reduce cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 risks, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re appears to be no serious debate about whecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r participants should be paid. Indeed, for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 best adult football players, college scholarships and perhaps a professional contract worth multiple millions are possible."


December 22, 2017
Paying Kidney Donors, Football Players, And Boxers: Medical Risks
"cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 medical risks to a professional career in football, boxing, and ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r violent sports are much greater both in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 near and long term than cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 risks of donating a kidney. Injuries in such sports are common, and retired players are very often disabled by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 long-term effects of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se injuries as well cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 cumulative effect of thousands of blows to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 body."

December 24, 2017
Paying Kidney Donors, Football Players, And Boxers: Informed Consent And It’s Limits
"We believe that if NOTA were amended to allow payments to donors, potential kidney donors could be protected against being unduly tempted through cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 existing structure of screening, counseling, and delay, perhaps with some additional protections to prevent hasty decisions. On cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r hand, it is not clear that NFL recruits have such protections in place.

"Whecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r and when sane, sober, well-informed, adults should be banned by government authority from choosing to engage in an activity that risks cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir own life and limb is an ancient point of contention. There are a variety of hazardous activities that are permitted with no legal bar to receiving compensation. Included on this list are such occupations as logging, roofing, commercial fishing, and military service. Also included are violent sports such as football, boxing, and mixed martial arts (MMA). These examples illustrate a broad endorsement of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 principle that consenting adults should be allowed to exchange (in a probabilistic sense) cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir physical health and safety for financial compensation, even in some instances where cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ultimate product is simply providing a public entertainment.
...
"In short, to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 extent that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ban on compensated kidney donation is grounded in a concern that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 lure of money may cause donors to disregard cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 risks of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 procedure and subsequent long-term effects, that concern applies with even more force to participation in violent sport.

"This, of course, is just a taste of our analysis and evidence, so read cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 full paper* for more."

*If We Allow Football Players and Boxers to Be Paid for Entertaining cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Public, Why Don't We Allow Kidney Donors to Be Paid for Saving Lives?
Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 81, No. 3, 2018
and by Philip J. Cook Kimberly D. Krawiec

December 25, 2017
Paying Kidney Donors, Football Players, And Boxers: Exploitation, Race, Class

"We believe that using words like “coercion” and “exploitation” to characterize cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 introduction of a new option by which poor people (and ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365rs) could earn a substantial amount of money provides more heat than light on this situation. The legitimate ethical concern is that so many Americans are poor, with inequality increasing over time. But that observation does not support a ban on compensation, which in fact limits cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 options available to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 poor and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365reby makes a bad situation (cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir lack of marketable assets) worse. But for anyone not persuaded by this argument, we note that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se social-justice concerns apply with at least equal force to compensating boxers; most American professional boxers were raised in lower-income neighborhoods, and are eicá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r black or Hispanic.
...
"As more has become known about cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 dangers of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 repeated head trauma, similar arguments regarding football have become more prominent. About 70% of NFL players are black, and Pacific Islanders are also overrepresented as compared to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 American population. Accordingly, much attention has been paid to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 concussion crisis as a race and class problem. As one observer recently noted, “What’s a little permanent brain damage when you’re facing a life of debilitating poverty?” In reality, NFL players are better educated cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365mselves, and come from better educated homes, than is average for Americans, in part because cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 NFL typically recruits college students. Still, some NFL players, like some would-be kidney donors, come from poverty."


December 26, 2017
If You Oppose Paying Kidney Donors, You Should Oppose Paying Football Players And Boxers Too: Wrap-Up

"In this series of posts, I’ve discussed a new draft that Phil Cook and I are circulating, If We Allow Football Players and Boxers to Be Paid for Entertaining cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Public, Why Don't We Allow Kidney Donors to Be Paid for Saving Lives?. Our claim, which I laid out in my first post, is that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re is a stronger case for compensating kidney donors than for compensating participants in violent sports. If this proposition is accepted, one implication is that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re are only three logically consistent positions: allow compensation for both kidney donation and for violent sports; allow compensation for kidney donation but not for violent sports; or allow compensation for neicá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r. Our current law and practice is perverse in endorsing a fourth regime, allowing compensation for violent sports but not kidney donation.
A common argument in support of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ban on kidney donation is that if people were offered cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 temptation of substantial compensation, some would volunteer to donate against cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir own “true” best interests. This argument is often coupled with a social justice concern, namely that if kidney donors were paid, a large percentage of volunteers would be poor and financially stressed, and for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 offer of a substantial financial inducement would be coercive. In sum, a system of compensated donation would provide an undue temptation, and end up exploiting cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 poor.
To cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se arguments we offer both a direct response, and a response by analogy with violent sport. My posts have touched on a few key points. First, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 medical risks to a professional career in football, boxing, and ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r violent sports are much greater both in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 near and long term than cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 risks of donating a kidney. On cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r hand, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 consent and screening process in professional sports is not as developed as in kidney donation. The social justice concerns stem from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 fact that most players are black and some come from impoverished backgrounds."

The post goes on to point out that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 (life savings) benefits to kidney patients from kidney donation are huge, and it's hard to argue that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y are less deserving or get less benefit than sports spectators. But you get cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 idea...

Sunday, December 24, 2017

The riskiest job in medicine

 The November December Message from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ASTS President Jean Edmond refers to an auto accident involving cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ambulance transporting a liver to be transplanted.

"Our donor team, two fellows, a surgical resident, and a medical student were involved in a high speed car crash coming back with a liver from Long Island. Fortunately, all were seat-belted and as cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y stood in a daze around cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 crushed ambulance, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 first thing cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y worried about was getting cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 liver safely back to Cornell for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 implant. This moment captures cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 selfless devotion of our young people as cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y carry out cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 lifesaving work that we all do every day."

Here's an article about that:
The Riskiest Job in Medicine: Transplant Surgeons and Organ Procurement Travel, by M. J. Englesbe, and R. M. Merion, in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 American Journal of Transplantation,  Volume 9, Issue 10, October 2009, 2406–2415

Abstract

Transplant surgeons are exposed to workplace risk due to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 urgent nature of travel related to organ procurement. A retrospective cohort study was completed using data from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 National Transportation Safety Board. A web-based survey was administered to members of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 American Society of Transplant Surgeons. The survey response rate was 38% (281/747). Involvement in ≥1 procurement-related travel accident was reported by 15% of respondents; surgeons reported 61 accidents and 11 fatalities. Air travel was used in 26% of procurements and was involved in 56% of accidents. The risk of fatality while traveling on an organ procurement flight was estimated to be 1000 times higher than scheduled commercial flight. Involvement in a ‘near miss accident’ was reported by 80.8%. Only 16% of respondents reported feeling ‘very safe’ while traveling. Procurement of organs by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 geographically closest transplant center would have reduced cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 need for air travel (>100 nautical miles) for lung, heart, liver and pancreas procurement by 35%, 43%, 31% and 49%, respectively (p < 0.0001). These reductions were observed in each Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network region. Though cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se data have important limitations, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y suggest that organ procurement travel is associated with significant risk. Improvements in organ procurement travel are needed.


Safe travels, all of you out cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re...

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

Informed consent laws, memorialized in an obituary

The NY Times has cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 obituary, which recalls a long ago medical tragedy (he was left paralyzed by a surgery he had when he was 19) that gave rise to laws about informed consent:
Jerry Canterbury, Whose Paralysis Led to Informed Consent Laws, Is Dead at 78

"Yet by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 time of his death, that surgery — with its horrific outcome — had taken its place in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 annals of medical law. It had led to a landmark court ruling that fundamentally transformed how doctors deal with patients in evaluating cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 risks of potential treatment.

“This is probably one of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 handful of most significant medicolegal cases in United States history,” said Jacob M. Appel, a doctor and bioethicist.

"The ruling, by a federal appeals court in Washington in 1972, declared that before a patient provided informed consent to surgery or ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r proposed treatment, a doctor must disclose cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 risks, benefits and alternatives that a reasonable person would consider relevant.

"Previously, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 onus of soliciting that information had rested with cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 patient, and any description of risks was provided at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 doctor’s discretion. A doctor had been considered negligent only when treatment was administered against cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 patient’s wishes.

“It would not be an exaggeration to say that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 opinion is cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 cornerstone of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 law of informed consent” to medical treatment, “not only in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 United States, but in ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r English-speaking countries, too,” said Prof. Alan Meisel, who teaches law and psychiatry at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 University of Pittsburgh School of Law."


Wednesday, February 26, 2014

Boston Globe on 2010 death of live liver donor

The Boston Globe had a story earlier this month recounting cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 events surrounding cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 2010 death of a liver donor (about which cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y wrote and I blogged at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 time: Live Liver donation tragedy).

Donor’s death shatters family, stuns surgeons: Pure generosity drove Paul Hawks to donate part of his liver to his desperately ill brocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r-in-law. Then disaster struck, and transplant medicine has had to rethink its rules.
By Liz Kowalczyk    FEBRUARY 02, 2014

Monday, January 5, 2009

Markets for Macro Risks: Early Shiller

Whenever I think about designing markets on which individuals can hedge big risks, I think about cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 remarkable market-design work of Robert Shiller. It's not his recent bestsellers that I'm thinking of as much as his 1993 Clarendon Lectures, Macro Markets: Creating Institutions for Managing Society's Largest Economic Risks. It called for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 creation, among ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r things, of what became cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Case-Shiller Home Price Indices, that allow large movements in residential real estate to be hedged.

His web pages on what he calls Financial Democracy, and its associated references and links, are well worth looking at.