Monday, November 26, 2007

Controls Are Not cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Solution to Our Problem

If you recognize cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 inspiration for this post title and graphic, you'll understand my ultimate goal. If not, let me start by saying this post is an expansion of ideas presented in a previous post with cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 succinct and catchy title Control-Compliant vs Field-Assessed Security.

In brief, too many organizations, regulators, and government agencies waste precious time and resources devising and auditing "controls," regardless of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 effect cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se controls have or do not have on security. They are far too input-centric; cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y should become more output-aware. They obsess over recording conditions cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y believe may be helpful while remaining ignorant of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 "score of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 game." They practice management by belief and disregard management by fact.

Let me provide a few examples from one of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 canonical texts used by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 control-compliant crowd: NIST Special Publication 800-53: Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems (.pdf). The following is an example of a control, taken from page 140.

SI-3 MALICIOUS CODE PROTECTION


The information system implements malicious code protection.

Control: Supplemental Guidance: The organization employs malicious code protection mechanisms at critical information system entry and exit points (e.g., firewalls, electronic mail servers, web servers, proxy servers, remote-access servers) and at workstations, servers, or mobile computing devices on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 network. The organization uses cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 malicious code protection mechanisms to detect and eradicate malicious code (e.g., viruses, worms, Trojan horses, spyware) transported: (i) by electronic mail, electronic mail attachments, Internet accesses, removable media (e.g., USB devices, diskettes or compact disks), or ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r common means; or (ii) by exploiting information system vulnerabilities. The organization updates malicious code protection mechanisms (including cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 latest virus definitions) whenever new releases are available in accordance with organizational configuration management policy and procedures. The organization considers using malicious code protection software products from multiple vendors (e.g., using one vendor for boundary devices and servers and anocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r vendor for workstations). The organization also considers cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 receipt of false positives during malicious code detection and eradication and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 resulting potential impact on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 availability of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 information system. NIST Special Publication 800-83 provides guidance on implementing malicious code protection.

Control Enhancements:
(1) The organization centrally manages malicious code protection mechanisms.
(2) The information system automatically updates malicious code protection mechanisms.


At first read one might reasonably respond by saying "What's wrong with that? This control advocates implementing anti-virus and related anti-malware software." Think more clearly about this issue and several problems appear.

  • Adding anti-virus products can introduce additional vulnerabilities to systems which might not have exposed cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365mselves without running anti-virus. Consider my post Example of Security Product Introducing Vulnerabilities if you need examples. In short, add anti-virus, be compromised.

  • Achieving compliance may cost more than potential damage. How many times have you heard a Unix administrator complain that he/she has to purchase an anti-virus product for his/her Unix server simply to be compliant with a control like this? The potential for a Unix server (not Mac OS X) to be damaged by a user opening an email through a client while logged on to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 server (a very popular exploitation vector on a Windows XP box) is practically nil.

  • Does this actually work? This is cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 question that no one asks. Does it really matter if your system is running anti-virus software? Did you know that intruders (especially high-end ones most likely to selectively, steathily target cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 very .gov and .mil systems required to be compliant with this control) test cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir malware against a battery of anti-virus products to ensure cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir code wins? Are weekly updates superior to daily updates? Daily to hourly?


The purpose of this post is to tentatively propose an alternative approach. I called this "field-assessed" in contrast to "control-compliant." Some people prefer cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 term "results-based." Whatever you call it, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 idea is to direct attention away from inputs and devote more energy to outputs. As far as mandating inputs (like every device must run anti-virus), I say that is a waste of time and resources.

I recommend taking measurements to determine your enterprise "score of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 game," and use that information to decide what you need to do differently. I'm not suggesting abandoning efforts to prevent intrusions (i.e., "inputs.") Racá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r, don't think your security responsibilities end when cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 bottle is broken against cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 bow of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ship and it slides into cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 sea. You've got to keep watching to see if it sinks, if pirates attack, how cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 lifeboats handle rough seas, and so forth.

These are a few ideas.

  1. Standard client build client-side survival test. Create multiple sacrificial systems with your standard build. Deploy a client-side testing solution on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m, like a honeyclient. (See The Sting for a recent story.) Vary your defensive posture. Measure how long it takes for your standard build to be compromised by in-cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365-wild Web sites, spam, and ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r communications with cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 outside world.

  2. Standard client build server-side survival test. Create multiple sacrificial systems with your standard build. Deploy cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m as a honeynet. Vary your defensive posture. Measure how long it takes for your standard build to be compromised by malicious external traffic from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 outside world -- or better yet -- from your internal network.

  3. Standard client build client-side penetration test. Create multiple sacrificial systems with your standard build. Conduct my recommendation penetration testing activities and time cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 result.

  4. Standard client build server-side penetration test. Repeat number 3 with a server-side flavor.

  5. Standard server build server-side penetration test. Repeat number 3 against your server build with a server-side flavor. I hope you don't have users operating servers as if cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y were clients (i.e., browsing cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Web, reading email, and so forth.) If you do, repeat this step and do a client-side pen test too.

  6. Deploy low-interactive honeynets and sinkhole routers in your internal network. These low-interaction systems provide a means to get some indications of what might be happening inside your network. If you think deploying cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 external network might reveal indications of targeted attacks, try that. (I doubt it will be that useful due to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 overall attack noise, but who knows?)

  7. Conduct automated, sampled client host integrity assessments. Select a statistically valid subset of your clients and check cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m using multiple automated tools (malware/rootkit/etc. checkers) for indications of compromise.

  8. Conduct automated, sampled server host integrity assessments. Self-explanatory.

  9. Conduct manual, sampled client host integrity assessments. These are deep-dives of individual systems. You can think of it as an incident response where you have not had indication of an incident yet. Remote IR tools can be helpful here. If you are really hard-core and you have cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 time, resources, and cooperation, do offline analysis of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 hard drive.

  10. Conduct manual, sampled server host integrity assessments. Self-explanatory.

  11. Conduct automated, sampled network host activity assessments. I questioned adding this step here, since you should probably always be doing this. Sometimes it can be difficult to find cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 time to review cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 results, however automated cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 data collection. The idea is to let your NSM system see if any of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 traffic it sees is out of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ordinary based on algorithms you provide.

  12. Conduct manual, sampled network host activity assessments. This method is more likely to produce results. Here a skilled analyst performs deep individual analysis of traffic on a sample of machines (client and server, separately) to see if any indications of compromise appear.


In all of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se cases, trend your measurements over time to see if you see improvements when you alter an input. I know some of you might complain that you can't expect to have consistent output when cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 threat landscape is constantly changing. I really don't care, and neicá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r does your CEO or manager!

I offer two recommendations:

  • Remember Andy Jaquith's criteria for good metrics, simplified here.


    1. Measure consistently.

    2. Make cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m cheap to measure. (Sorry Andy, my manual tests violate this!)

    3. Use compound metrics.

    4. Be actionable.


  • Don't slip into thinking of inputs. Don't measure how many hosts are running anti-virus. We want to measure outputs. We are not proposing new controls.


Controls are not cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 solution to our problem. Controls are cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 problem. They divert too much time, resources, and attention from endeavors which do make a difference. If cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 indications I am receiving from readers and friends are true, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ideas in this post are gaining traction. Do you have ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r ideas?

Friday, November 23, 2007

MPAA University Toolkit Phone Home

This is a follow-up to my story Examining cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 MPAA University Toolkit.

After reading cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 hysteria posted on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Slashdot story MPAA College Toolkit Raises Privacy, Security Concerns, I thought I would take a look at traffic leaving cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 box. Aside from traffic generated by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 auto-start of Firefox, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 only interesting event was cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 following. I captured it with my gateway Sguil sensor.

Sensor Name: hacom
Timestamp: 2007-11-23 21:27:04
Connection ID: .hacom_5136150487897024842
Src IP: 69.255.105.234 (c-69-255-105-234.hsd1.va.comcast.net)
Dst IP: 66.252.137.155 (Unknown)
Src Port: 39532
Dst Port: 80
OS Fingerprint: 69.255.105.234:39532 - UNKNOWN
[S4:61:1:60:M1460,S,T,N,W4:.:?:?] (up: 3 hrs)
OS Fingerprint: -> 66.252.137.155:80 (link: ecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365rnet/modem)

SRC: GET /version.txt HTTP/1.1
SRC: Accept-Encoding: identity
SRC: Host: universitytoolkit.com
SRC: Connection: close
SRC: User-Agent: Python-urllib/2.5
SRC:
SRC:
DST: HTTP/1.1 200 OK
DST: Date: Fri, 23 Nov 2007 21:27:31 GMT
DST: Server: Apache/2.0.52 (Red Hat)
DST: Last-Modified: Fri, 12 Oct 2007 14:14:45 GMT
DST: ETag: "4f4002-7-57333f40"
DST: Accept-Ranges: bytes
DST: Content-Length: 7
DST: Connection: close
DST: Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
DST:
DST: 1.2-RC3

That's it.

Examining cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 MPAA University Toolkit

I learned about cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 MPAA University Toolkit at Brian Krebs' always-excellent SecurityFix blog. If you want to know more about cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 user experience, please check out that post. Here I take a look at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 monitoring software, focusing on Snort, operating on this application.

I downloaded cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 534 MB peerwatch-1.2-RC5.iso and started it in a VMware Server session. I used ctrl-c and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n 'sudo bash' to exit from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 initial script presented within X, set a root password, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n used 'apt-get ssh install' to install OpenSSH and thus enable root access. From this point forward I accessed cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 system using OpenSSH remotely to facilitate copying information into this blog post.

First, this looks like Ubuntu (Xubuntu, if you really care) Feisty Fawn, or 7.04.

root@ubuntu:~# uname -a
Linux ubuntu 2.6.20-15-generic #2 SMP Sun Apr 15 07:36:31 UTC 2007
i686 GNU/Linux

I was most interested in learning about Snort on this toolkit. I saw this version installed.

root@ubuntu:~# snort -V

,,_ -*> Snort! <*-
o" )~ Version 2.3.3 (Build 14)
'''' By Martin Roesch & The Snort Team: http://www.snort.org/team.html
(C) Copyright 1998-2004 Sourcefire Inc., et al.

Wow, that's old. It's probably patched base on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 changelog. This is Snort installed via Debian/Ubuntu package:

root@ubuntu:~# dpkg --list | grep snort
rc snort 2.3.3-9
Flexible Network Intrusion Detection System
ii snort-common 2.3.3-9
Flexible Network Intrusion Detection System
ii snort-mysql 2.3.3-9
Flexible Network Intrusion Detection System
ii snort-rules-default 2.3.3-9
Flexible Network Intrusion Detection System

Let's see what cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 snort.conf looks like.

root@ubuntu:/etc/snort# cat snort.conf
var HOME_NET any
var EXTERNAL_NET !$HOME_NET
var DNS_SERVERS $HOME_NET
var SMTP_SERVERS $HOME_NET
var HTTP_SERVERS $HOME_NET
var SQL_SERVERS $HOME_NET
var TELNET_SERVERS $HOME_NET
var SNMP_SERVERS $HOME_NET

var HTTP_PORTS 80

var RULE_PATH /etc/snort/rules

preprocessor flow: stats_interval 0 hash 2
preprocessor frag2
preprocessor stream4: disable_evasion_alerts detect_scans
preprocessor stream4_reassemble

# preprocessor perfmonitor: time 300 file /var/snort/snort.stats pktcnt 10000

# (#DBSTART#)
output database: log, mysql, user=snort password=snort dbname=snort host=localhost
# (#DBEND#)

include classification.config
include reference.config

config flowbits_size: 256

include $RULE_PATH/bleeding-p2p.rules
include $RULE_PATH/local-ftp.rules
include $RULE_PATH/local-http.rules
include $RULE_PATH/local-smb.rules
include $RULE_PATH/p2p.rules

include threshold.conf

Excellent, anocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r Snort installation where Snort is logging directly to a MySQL database. That must be cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 default provided by Debian/Ubuntu. Ouch. Thresholding and suppression are also enabled but cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 entire contents are commented out in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 threshold.conf file.

Let's get a look at those rules.

bleeding-p2p.rules looks like an old copy of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 bleeding-p2p.rules, perhaps from mid-year? I think cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re are 38 rules.

p2p.rules is a really old rule set:

# $Id: p2p.rules,v 1.17.2.1 2004/10/13 20:25:57 bmc Exp $

You may recognize cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r Snort distributed-rules as being those that accompanied Snort 2.3.3, which pre-dates cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 new license for Snort rules.

local-ftp.rules is cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 first rule set written by whomever assembled this toolkit.

# cat local-ftp.rules
# 1 000 500 - 1 000 699

# active
alert tcp any 20 -> any any (msg: "FTP Download - MPEG Movie File - B2"; \
content: "|00 00 01 B2|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000501; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 20 -> any any (msg: "FTP Download - MPEG Movie File - B3"; \
content: "|00 00 01 B3|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000502; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 20 -> any any (msg: "FTP Download - MPEG Movie File - BA"; \
content: "|00 00 01 BA|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000503; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 20 -> any any (msg: "FTP Download - MPEG Movie File - BB"; \
content: "|00 00 01 BB|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000504; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 20 -> any any (msg: "FTP Download - MPEG-4 Video File"; \
content: "|00 00 00 18 66 74 79 70 6D 70 34|"; depth: 15; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000505; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 20 -> any any (msg: "FTP Download - Quicktime Movie File - MOOV"; \
content: "|6D 6F 6F 76|"; depth: 10; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000506; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 20 -> any any (msg: "FTP Download - Quicktime Movie File - MDAT"; \
content: "|6D 64 61 74|"; depth: 10; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000507; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 20 -> any any (msg: "FTP Download - Audio Video Interleave (AVI) File - AVI"; \
content: "|41 56 49 20|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000508; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 20 -> any any (msg: "FTP Download - Audio Video Interleave (AVI) File - RIFF"; \
content: "|52 49 46 46|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000509; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 20 -> any any (msg: "FTP Download - Real Media File"; \
content: "|2E 52 4D 46|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000510; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 20 -> any any (msg: "FTP Download - Windows Media File"; \
content: "|30 26 B2 75 8E 66 CF 11 A6 D9 00 AA 00 62 CE 6C|"; depth: 20; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000511; rev: 1; \
)

# passive
alert tcp any 1024: -> any 1024: (msg: "FTP PASV Download - MPEG Movie File - B2"; \
content: "|00 00 01 B2|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000512; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 1024: -> any 1024: (msg: "FTP PASV Download - MPEG Movie File - B3"; \
content: "|00 00 01 B3|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000513; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 1024: -> any 1024: (msg: "FTP PASV Download - MPEG Movie File - BA"; \
content: "|00 00 01 BA|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000514; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 1024: -> any 1024: (msg: "FTP PASV Download - MPEG Movie File - BB"; \
content: "|00 00 01 BB|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000515; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 1024: -> any 1024: (msg: "FTP PASV Download - MPEG-4 Video File"; \
content: "|00 00 00 18 66 74 79 70 6D 70 34|"; depth: 15; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000516; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 1024: -> any 1024: (msg: "FTP PASV Download - Quicktime Movie File - MOOV"; \
content: "|6D 6F 6F 76|"; depth: 10; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000517; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 1024: -> any 1024: (msg: "FTP PASV Download - Quicktime Movie File - MDAT"; \
content: "|6D 64 61 74|"; depth: 10; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000518; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 1024: -> any 1024: (msg: "FTP PASV Download - Audio Video Interleave (AVI) File - AVI"; \
content: "|41 56 49 20|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000519; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 1024: -> any 1024: (msg: "FTP PASV Download - Audio Video Interleave (AVI) File - RIFF"; \
content: "|52 49 46 46|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000520; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 1024: -> any 1024: (msg: "FTP PASV Download - Real Media File"; \
content: "|2E 52 4D 46|"; depth: 6; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000521; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 1024: -> any 1024: (msg: "FTP PASV Download - Windows Media File"; \
content: "|30 26 B2 75 8E 66 CF 11 A6 D9 00 AA 00 62 CE 6C|"; depth: 20; rawbytes; \
sid: 1000522; rev: 1; \
)

Anyone who has written Snort rules is probably going to question cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 false positive rate on this rule set, especially cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 "tcp any 1024: -> any 1024:" group. These are straight content matches, and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 smaller strings like "|2E 52 4D 46|" are probably going to fire quite a bit on unintended traffic.

Here is local-http.rules.

root@ubuntu:/etc/snort/rules# cat local-http.rules
# 1 000 100 - 1 000 299

alert tcp any 80 -> any any (msg: "HTTP Download > 100M - MPEG Movie File - B2"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "HTTP"; depth: 5; nocase; \
content: "200"; within: 8; \
content: "Content-Length\: "; within: 300; nocase; \
pcre: "/^[0-9]{9,}\r\n/R"; \
content: "|0d 0a 0d 0a|"; within: 100; \
content: "|00 00 01 B2|"; within: 6; \
sid: 1000101; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 80 -> any any (msg: "HTTP Download > 100M - MPEG Movie File - B3"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "HTTP"; depth: 5; nocase; \
content: "200"; within: 8; \
content: "Content-Length\: "; within: 300; nocase; \
pcre: "/^[0-9]{9,}\r\n/R"; \
content: "|0d 0a 0d 0a|"; within: 100; \
content: "|00 00 01 B3|"; within: 6; \
sid: 1000102; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 80 -> any any (msg: "HTTP Download > 100M - MPEG Movie File - BA"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "HTTP"; depth: 5; nocase; \
content: "200"; within: 8; \
content: "Content-Length\: "; within: 300; nocase; \
pcre: "/^[0-9]{9,}\r\n/R"; \
content: "|0d 0a 0d 0a|"; within: 100; \
content: "|00 00 01 BA|"; within: 6; \
sid: 1000103; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 80 -> any any (msg: "HTTP Download > 100M - MPEG Movie File - BB"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "HTTP"; depth: 5; nocase; \
content: "200"; within: 8; \
content: "Content-Length\: "; within: 300; nocase; \
pcre: "/^[0-9]{9,}\r\n/R"; \
content: "|0d 0a 0d 0a|"; within: 100; \
content: "|00 00 01 BB|"; within: 6; \
sid: 1000104; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 80 -> any any (msg: "HTTP Download > 100M - MPEG-4 Video File"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "HTTP"; depth: 5; nocase; \
content: "200"; within: 8; \
content: "Content-Length\: "; within: 300; nocase; \
pcre: "/^[0-9]{9,}\r\n/R"; \
content: "|0d 0a 0d 0a|"; within: 100; \
content: "|00 00 00 18 66 74 79 70 6D 70 34|"; within: 15; \
sid: 1000105; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 80 -> any any (msg: "HTTP Download > 100M - Quicktime Movie File - MOOV"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "HTTP"; depth: 5; nocase; \
content: "200"; within: 8; \
content: "Content-Length\: "; within: 300; nocase; \
pcre: "/^[0-9]{9,}\r\n/R"; \
content: "|0d 0a 0d 0a|"; within: 100; \
content: "|6D 6F 6F 76|"; within: 10; \
sid: 1000106; rev: 1; \
)
alert tcp any 80 -> any any (msg: "HTTP Download > 100M - Quicktime Movie File - MDAT"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "HTTP"; depth: 5; nocase; \
content: "200"; within: 8; \
content: "Content-Length\: "; within: 300; nocase; \
pcre: "/^[0-9]{9,}\r\n/R"; \
content: "|0d 0a 0d 0a|"; within: 100; \
content: "|6D 64 61 74|"; within: 10; \
sid: 1000107; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 80 -> any any (msg: "HTTP Download > 100M - Audio Video Interleave (AVI) File - AVI"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "HTTP"; depth: 5; nocase; \
content: "200"; within: 8; \
content: "Content-Length\: "; within: 300; nocase; \
pcre: "/^[0-9]{9,}\r\n/R"; \
content: "|0d 0a 0d 0a|"; within: 100; \
content: "|41 56 49 20|"; within: 6; \
sid: 1000108; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 80 -> any any (msg: "HTTP Download > 100M - Audio Video Interleave (AVI) File - RIFF"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "HTTP"; depth: 5; nocase; \
content: "200"; within: 8; \
content: "Content-Length\: "; within: 300; nocase; \
pcre: "/^[0-9]{9,}\r\n/R"; \
content: "|0d 0a 0d 0a|"; within: 100; \
content: "|52 49 46 46|"; within: 6; \
sid: 1000109; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 80 -> any any (msg: "HTTP Download > 100M - Real Media File"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "HTTP"; depth: 5; nocase; \
content: "200"; within: 8; \
content: "Content-Length\: "; within: 300; nocase; \
pcre: "/^[0-9]{9,}\r\n/R"; \
content: "|0d 0a 0d 0a|"; within: 100; \
content: "|2E 52 4D 46|"; within: 6; \
sid: 1000110; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 80 -> any any (msg: "HTTP Download > 100M - Windows Media File"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "HTTP"; depth: 5; nocase; \
content: "200"; within: 8; \
content: "Content-Length\: "; within: 300; nocase; \
pcre: "/^[0-9]{9,}\r\n/R"; \
content: "|0d 0a 0d 0a|"; within: 100; \
content: "|30 26 B2 75 8E 66 CF 11 A6 D9 00 AA 00 62 CE 6C|"; within: 20; \
sid: 1000111; rev: 1; \
)

That's 11 rules. There are 22 more. The middle 11 have port 80 replaced by 3128. The final 11 have port 8080. What does that tell you? It means that you can avoid being detected by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se rules if cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 remote Web server runs on a port ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r than 80, 3128, or 8080. Note also that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 original snort.conf doesn't enable cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 http_inspect or http_inspect_server preprocessors. These rules are more raw content matches, although cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir specificity will reduce cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 number of times cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y fire. They also introduce more evasion options.

Finally, let's check out local-smb.rules.

root@ubuntu:/etc/snort/rules# cat local-smb.rules
# 1 000 300 - 1 000 499

alert tcp any 445 -> any any (msg: "SMB-445 Download > 100M - MPEG Movie File - B2"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "SMB|2E|"; offset: 5; within: 4; nocase; \
content: "|00 00 01 B2|"; distance: 54; within: 4; \
sid: 1000301; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 445 -> any any (msg: "SMB-445 Download > 100M - MPEG Movie File - B3"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "SMB|2E|"; offset: 5; within: 4; nocase; \
content: "|00 00 01 B3|"; distance: 54; within: 4; \
sid: 1000302; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 445 -> any any (msg: "SMB-445 Download > 100M - MPEG Movie File - BA"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "SMB|2E|"; offset: 5; within: 4; nocase; \
content: "|00 00 01 BA|"; distance: 54; within: 4; \
sid: 1000303; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 445 -> any any (msg: "SMB-445 Download > 100M - MPEG Movie File - BB"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "SMB|2E|"; offset: 5; within: 4; nocase; \
content: "|00 00 01 BB|"; distance: 54; within: 4; \
sid: 1000304; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 445 -> any any (msg: "SMB-445 Download > 100M - MPEG-4 Video File"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "SMB|2E|"; offset: 5; within: 4; nocase; \
content: "|00 00 00 18 66 74 79 70 6D 70 34|"; distance: 54; within: 15; \
sid: 1000305; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 445 -> any any (msg: "SMB-445 Download > 100M - Quicktime Movie File - MOOV"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "SMB|2E|"; offset: 5; within: 4; nocase; \
content: "MOOV"; distance: 54; within: 8; nocase; \
sid: 1000306; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 445 -> any any (msg: "SMB-445 Download > 100M - Quicktime Movie File - MDAT"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "SMB|2E|"; offset: 5; within: 4; nocase; \
content: "MDAT"; distance: 54; within: 4; nocase; \
sid: 1000307; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 445 -> any any (msg: "SMB-445 Download > 100M - Audio Video Interleave (AVI) File - AVI"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "SMB|2E|"; offset: 5; within: 4; nocase; \
content: "AVI_"; distance: 54; within: 4; nocase; \
sid: 1000308; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 445 -> any any (msg: "SMB-445 Download > 100M - Audio Video Interleave (AVI) File - RIFF"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "SMB|2E|"; offset: 5; within: 4; nocase; \
content: "RIFF"; distance: 54; within: 4; nocase; \
sid: 1000309; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 445 -> any any (msg: "SMB-445 Download > 100M - Real Media File"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "SMB|2E|"; offset: 5; within: 4; nocase; \
content: "|2E 52 4D 46|"; distance: 54; within: 4; \
sid: 1000310; rev: 1; \
)

alert tcp any 445 -> any any (msg: "SMB-445 Download > 100M - Windows Media File"; \
flow: established,from_server; \
content: "SMB|2E|"; offset: 5; within: 4; nocase; \
content: "|30 26 B2 75 8E 66 CF 11 A6 D9 00 AA 00 62 CE 6C|"; distance: 54; within: 16; \
sid: 1000311; rev: 1; \
)

Notice all cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 port 445 instances? You can evade cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se if your SMB session uses port 139 TCP.

I thought it might be fun to test cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se rules. I decided to download a 108 MB .avi file to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 toolkit host itself and see if would be observed.

file robert-morris.avi
robert-morris.avi: RIFF (little-endian) data, AVI, 640 x 480, 30.00 fps,
video: Motion JPEG, audio: uncompressed PCM (mono, 11024 Hz)

Hmm, no alerts. I have Sguil running on my gateway. Let's see what cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 start of a transcript for this session looks like.

Sensor Name: hacom
Timestamp: 2007-11-23 21:32:47
Connection ID: .hacom_5136151961070210685
Src IP: 69.255.105.234 (c-69-255-105-234.hsd1.va.comcast.net)
Dst IP: 164.106.251.250 (Unknown)
Src Port: 58172
Dst Port: 80
OS Fingerprint: 69.255.105.234:58172 - UNKNOWN
[S4:61:1:60:M1460,S,T,N,W4:.:?:?] (up: 3 hrs)
OS Fingerprint: -> 164.106.251.250:80 (link: ecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365rnet/modem)

SRC: GET /docs/netsec/robert-morris.avi HTTP/1.0
SRC: User-Agent: Wget/1.10.2
SRC: Accept: */*
SRC: Host: 164.106.251.250
SRC: Connection: Keep-Alive
SRC:
SRC:
DST: HTTP/1.1 200 OK
DST: Date: Fri, 23 Nov 2007 21:38:16 GMT
DST: Server: Apache/2.0.52 (Red Hat)
DST: Last-Modified: Tue, 23 Aug 2005 21:46:31 GMT
DST: ETag: "37804f-6bfad96-ba9f7bc0"
DST: Accept-Ranges: bytes
DST: Content-Length: 113225110
DST: Connection: close
DST: Content-Type: video/x-msvideo
DST:
DST:
DST: RIFF....AVI LISTF...hdrlavih8...5...D.&......................I..
LISTt...strlstrh8...vidsmjpg............5...@B...........I...'..............
strf(...(...............MJPG....................LIST\...strlstrh8...auds....
.................+......\
DST: ..+...'..............strf.........+...+......IDIT....
FRI JUL 29 15:54:43 2005
DST: .LIST....INFOISFT....CanonMVI02..JUNK~...

After cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 HTTP response you see cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 download begin for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 .avi. Presumably this would match, this rule?

"HTTP Download > 100M - Audio Video Interleave (AVI) File - RIFF"

Let's look at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 two most important packets in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 full content pcap file.

16:32:47.335530 IP 164.106.251.250.80 > 69.255.105.234.58172:
P 1:268(267) ack 133 win 1716
0x0000: 4520 013f e980 4000 3006 0fca a46a fbfa E..?..@.0....j..
0x0010: 45ff 69ea 0050 e33c f12d d653 a3ca 374e E.i..P.<.-.S..7N
0x0020: 8018 06b4 ce3b 0000 0101 080a 80f7 4ef2 .....;........N.
0x0030: 0013 7372 4854 5450 2f31 2e31 2032 3030 ..srHTTP/1.1.200
0x0040: 204f 4b0d 0a44 6174 653a 2046 7269 2c20 .OK..Date:.Fri,.
0x0050: 3233 204e 6f76 2032 3030 3720 3231 3a33 23.Nov.2007.21:3
0x0060: 383a 3136 2047 4d54 0d0a 5365 7276 6572 8:16.GMT..Server
0x0070: 3a20 4170 6163 6865 2f32 2e30 2e35 3220 :.Apache/2.0.52.
0x0080: 2852 6564 2048 6174 290d 0a4c 6173 742d (Red.Hat)..Last-
0x0090: 4d6f 6469 6669 6564 3a20 5475 652c 2032 Modified:.Tue,.2
0x00a0: 3320 4175 6720 3230 3035 2032 313a 3436 3.Aug.2005.21:46
0x00b0: 3a33 3120 474d 540d 0a45 5461 673a 2022 :31.GMT..ETag:."
0x00c0: 3337 3830 3466 2d36 6266 6164 3936 2d62 37804f-6bfad96-b
0x00d0: 6139 6637 6263 3022 0d0a 4163 6365 7074 a9f7bc0"..Accept
0x00e0: 2d52 616e 6765 733a 2062 7974 6573 0d0a -Ranges:.bytes..
0x00f0: 436f 6e74 656e 742d 4c65 6e67 7468 3a20 Content-Length:.
0x0100: 3131 3332 3235 3131 300d 0a43 6f6e 6e65 113225110..Conne
0x0110: 6374 696f 6e3a 2063 6c6f 7365 0d0a 436f ction:.close..Co
0x0120: 6e74 656e 742d 5479 7065 3a20 7669 6465 ntent-Type:.vide
0x0130: 6f2f 782d 6d73 7669 6465 6f0d 0a0d 0a o/x-msvideo....
16:32:47.336654 IP 164.106.251.250.80 > 69.255.105.234.58172:
. 268:1636(1368) ack 133 win 1716 #60;nop,nop,timestamp 2163691250 1274738#62;
0x0000: 4520 058c e982 4000 3006 0b7b a46a fbfa E.....@.0..{.j..
0x0010: 45ff 69ea 0050 e33c f12d d75e a3ca 374e E.i..P.<.-.^..7N
0x0020: 8010 06b4 b5f8 0000 0101 080a 80f7 4ef2 ..............N.
0x0030: 0013 7372 5249 4646 8ead bf06 4156 4920 ..srRIFF....AVI.
0x0040: 4c49 5354 4601 0000 6864 726c 6176 6968 LISTF...hdrlavih
0x0050: 3800 0000 3582 0000 44d0 2600 0000 0000 8...5...D.&.....
0x0060: 1000 0100 0e07 0000 0000 0000 0200 0000 ................
0x0070: c649 0100 8002 0000 e001 0000 0000 0000 .I..............
0x0080: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 4c49 5354 ............LIST
0x0090: 7400 0000 7374 726c 7374 7268 3800 0000 t...strlstrh8...
0x00a0: 7669 6473 6d6a 7067 0000 0000 0000 0000 vidsmjpg........
0x00b0: 0000 0000 3582 0000 4042 0f00 0000 0000 ....5...@B......
0x00c0: 0e07 0000 c649 0100 1027 0000 0000 0000 .....I...'......
0x00d0: 0000 0000 8002 e001 7374 7266 2800 0000 ........strf(...
0x00e0: 2800 0000 8002 0000 e001 0000 0100 1800 (...............
0x00f0: 4d4a 5047 0010 0e00 0000 0000 0000 0000 MJPG............
0x0100: 0000 0000 0000 0000 4c49 5354 5c00 0000 ........LIST\...
0x0110: 7374 726c 7374 7268 3800 0000 6175 6473 strlstrh8...auds
0x0120: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 ................
0x0130: 0100 0000 102b 0000 0000 0000 5c20 0a00 .....+......\...
0x0140: 102b 0000 1027 0000 0100 0000 0000 0000 .+...'..........
0x0150: 0000 0000 7374 7266 1000 0000 0100 0100 ....strf........
0x0160: 102b 0000 102b 0000 0100 0800 4944 4954 .+...+......IDIT
0x0170: 1a00 0000 4652 4920 4a55 4c20 3239 2031 ....FRI.JUL.29.1
0x0180: 353a 3534 3a34 3320 3230 3035 0a00 4c49 5:54:43.2005..LI
0x0190: 5354 1800 0000 494e 464f 4953 4654 0c00 ST....INFOISFT..
0x01a0: 0000 4361 6e6f 6e4d 5649 3032 0000 4a55 ..CanonMVI02..JU
0x01b0: 4e4b 7e06 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 NK~.............
...truncated...

Do you see it? The HTTP response code and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Content-Length statement appear in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 first packet. The .avi begins in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 second packet with RIFF. Snort doesn't fire an alert because all of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 matches needed for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 rule are not present in a single packet.

Technically, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re's not much to worry about here -- at least not yet. I do worry about putting monitoring tools in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 hands of people who don't know what cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y're doing and seeing cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m act on misconceptions. It's also important to identify cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 fact that this activity could violate wiretap and privacy laws.

Wednesday, November 21, 2007

Tap vs Lightning Strike

Earlier this year my lab suffered a near lightning strike. A tree right outside cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 lab was struck by lightning, causing damage to multiple electronic and electrical devices outside and inside cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 building.

Outside, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 lightning disabled an exterior lighting system and my phone lines. Inside, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 lightning took a severe toll on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 lab. The cable modem to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 outside world was destroyed. The NIC on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 lab firewall facing cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 cable modem was fried, along with a second NIC in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 firewall. The NIC on a sensor watching a tap between cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 cable modem and firewall was also destroyed. So far, this is a grim story.

I have one good piece of news to report, and it involves cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 tap I mentioned sitting between cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 cable modem and firewall. The tap survived cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 lightning strike. More precisely, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 tap continued to pass traffic even when its monitoring interface was damaged.

Had cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 tap been receiving traffic from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 modem or firewall, it would have continued to pass it. This truly amazed me. Frequently monitoring practitioners worry that inserting a tap in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir network architecture will introduce a single point of failure. In my experience, all of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 components around cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 tap are more likely to fail. A well-engineered tap will continue to pass traffic -- perhaps even when struck by lightning!

The tap that survived my lab lightning strike was built by Net Optics. Congratulations to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Net Optics engineering and manufacturing teams for building quality hardware.

Updating FreeBSD 7.0-BETA2 to 7.0-BETA3

Recently I posted FreeBSD Binary Upgrade News about developments with Colin Percival's FreeBSD Update tool. Today I performed a remote (via SSH) upgrade from FreeBSD 7.0-BETA2 to FreeBSD 7.0-BETA3 using FreeBSD Update. I document cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 process below so you can see how easy it is and for my future reference.

Here is uname output to show cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 OS version prior to upgrading.

# uname -a
FreeBSD myhost.mydomain.com 7.0-BETA2 FreeBSD 7.0-BETA2 #0:
Fri Nov 2 16:47:33 UTC 2007
root@logan.cse.buffalo.edu:/usr/obj/usr/src/sys/GENERIC i386

I wasn't sure if cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 version of FreeBSD Update packaged with FreeBSD 7.0-BETA2 would natively support this process, so I gave it a try.

# freebsd-update -r 7.0-BETA3 upgrade
usage: freebsd-update [options] command ... [path]

Options:
-b basedir -- Operate on a system mounted at basedir
(default: /)
-d workdir -- Store working files in workdir
(default: /var/db/freebsd-update/)
-f conffile -- Read configuration options from conffile
(default: /etc/freebsd-update.conf)
-k KEY -- Trust an RSA key with SHA256 hash of KEY
-s server -- Server from which to fetch updates
(default: update.FreeBSD.org)
-t address -- Mail output of cron command, if any, to address
(default: root)
Commands:
fetch -- Fetch updates from server
cron -- Sleep rand(3600) seconds, fetch updates, and send an
email if updates were found
install -- Install downloaded updates
rollback -- Uninstall most recently installed updates

Ok, that didn't work. Time to retrieve cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 new version from Colin's site.

# fetch http://www.daemonology.net/freebsd-update/freebsd-update-upgrade.tgz
freebsd-update-upgrade.tgz 100% of 21 kB 104 kBps
# fetch http://www.daemonology.net/freebsd-update/freebsd-update-upgrade.tgz.asc
freebsd-update-upgrade.tgz.asc 100% of 187 B 640 kBps

I decided to follow Colin's advice to check cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 signature of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 upgrade file. To do that I needed to install GnuPG.

# pkg_add -r gnupg
Fetching ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7-current/Latest/gnupg.tbz... Done.
Fetching ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7-current/All/openldap-client-2.3.39.tbz... Done.

************************************************************

The OpenLDAP client package has been successfully installed.

Edit
/usr/local/etc/openldap/ldap.conf
to change cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 system-wide client defaults.

Try `man ldap.conf' and visit cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 OpenLDAP FAQ-O-Matic at
http://www.OpenLDAP.org/faq/index.cgi?file=3
for more information.

************************************************************

Fetching ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7-current/All/curl-7.16.3.tbz... Done.
Fetching ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7-current/All/pth-2.0.7.tbz... Done.
Fetching ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7-current/All/libiconv-1.11_1.tbz... Done.
Fetching ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7-current/All/gettext-0.16.1_3.tbz... Done.
Fetching ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7-current/All/libgpg-error-1.5.tbz... Done.
Fetching ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7-current/All/libgcrypt-1.2.4_1.tbz... Done.
Fetching ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7-current/All/libksba-1.0.1_1.tbz... Done.
Fetching ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7-current/All/dirmngr-0.9.7_2.tbz... Done.

###############################################################################
A T T E N T I O N

In order to use gpg-agent, you need to install a pinentry dialog.

The following ports of pinentry dialogs are available:

security/pinentry-curses (ncurses based dialog)
security/pinentry-gtk (GTK 1.2 based dialog)
security/pinentry-gtk2 (GTK 2.x based dialog)
security/pinentry-qt (QT based dialog)

###############################################################################

Wow, that installed more dependencies than I expected. Here I import cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 PGP keys from FreeBSD,org.

# rehash
# fetch http://www.freebsd.org/doc/pgpkeyring.txt
pgpkeyring.txt 100% of 1406 kB 142 kBps 00m00s
# gpg --import pgpkeyring.txt
gpg: /root/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg: trustdb created
gpg: key CA6CDFB2: public key "FreeBSD Security Officer " imported
gpg: key FF8AE305: public key "core-secretary@FreeBSD.org" imported
...edited...
gpg: key D069F2A0: duplicated user ID detected - merged
gpg: key D069F2A0: public key "Thomas Abthorpe " imported
gpg: Total number processed: 262
gpg: w/o user IDs: 1
gpg: imported: 261 (RSA: 36)
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found

With cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 keys imported I verify cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 file I downloaded.

# gpg --verify freebsd-update-upgrade.tgz.asc freebsd-update-upgrade.tgz
gpg: Signature made Fri Nov 16 09:01:38 2007 EST using DSA key ID CA6CDFB2
gpg: Good signature from "FreeBSD Security Officer "
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg: There is no indication that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 signature belongs to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 owner.
Primary key fingerprint: C374 0FC5 69A6 FBB1 4AED B131 15D6 8804 CA6C DFB2

Note I need to generate my own key and sign cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 FreeBSD Security Officer's key with my generated key if I want to avoid GPG's warnings, i.e.:

gpg --gen-key
gpg --sign-key security-officer@FreeBSD.org

Now I am ready to proceed with cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 upgrade.

# tar -xf freebsd-update-upgrade.tgz
# sh freebsd-update.sh -f freebsd-update.conf -r 7.0-BETA3 upgrade
Looking up update.FreeBSD.org mirrors... 1 mirrors found.
Fetching public key from update1.FreeBSD.org... done.
Fetching metadata signature for 7.0-BETA2 from update1.FreeBSD.org... done.
Fetching metadata index... done.
Fetching 2 metadata files... done.
Inspecting system... done.

The following components of FreeBSD seem to be installed:
kernel/generic src/base src/bin src/cddl src/contrib src/crypto src/etc
src/games src/gnu src/include src/krb5 src/lib src/libexec src/release
src/rescue src/sbin src/secure src/share src/sys src/tools src/ubin
src/usbin world/base world/dict world/doc world/games world/info
world/manpages world/proflibs

The following components of FreeBSD do not seem to be installed:
src/compat world/catpages

Does this look reasonable (y/n)? y

Fetching metadata signature for 7.0-BETA3 from update1.FreeBSD.org... done.
Fetching metadata index... done.
Fetching 1 metadata patches. done.
Applying metadata patches... done.
Fetching 1 metadata files...
Inspecting system... done.
Preparing to download files... done.
Fetching 1289 patches.....10....20....30....40....50....60....70....80....90....
...edited...
Applying patches... done.
Fetching 329 files... done.

The following files will be removed as part of updating to 7.0-BETA3-p0:
/etc/pf.conf
/usr/share/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/LEGALNOTICE.html
/usr/share/doc/fr_FR.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x20872.html
/usr/share/doc/fr_FR.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x20918.html
/usr/share/doc/fr_FR.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x21123.html
/usr/share/examples/etc/pf.conf
/usr/src/etc/pf.conf

The following files will be added as part of updating to 7.0-BETA3-p0:
/boot/kernel/if_zyd.ko
/boot/kernel/if_zyd.ko.symbols
...edited...
/usr/share/examples/pf/pf.conf
/usr/src/share/examples/pf/pf.conf

The following files will be updated as part of updating to 7.0-BETA3-p0:
/bin/ps
/boot/kernel/3dfx.ko
...edited...
/usr/src/usr.sbin/wpa/wpa_supplicant/driver_freebsd.c
/var/named/etc/namedb/named.root

# sh freebsd-update.sh -f freebsd-update.conf install
Installing updates...
Kernel updates have been installed. Please reboot and run
"freebsd-update.sh install" again to finish installing updates.
# shutdown -r now

After a reboot I run cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 following.

# sh freebsd-update.sh -f freebsd-update.conf install
Installing updates... done.
# shutdown -r now

After a second reboot cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 system is completely upgraded.

$ uname -a
FreeBSD myhost.mydomain.com 7.0-BETA3 FreeBSD 7.0-BETA3 #0:
Fri Nov 16 22:20:33 UTC 2007
root@logan.cse.buffalo.edu:/usr/obj/usr/src/sys/GENERIC i386

That's excellent. The whole process took only a few minutes.

Tuesday, November 20, 2007

Network Monitoring: How Far?

In my January post The Revolution Will Be Monitored and elsewhere I discuss how network monitoring is becoming more prevalent, whecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r we like it or not. When I wrote my first book I clearly said that you should collect as much data as you can, given legal, political, and technical means because that approach gives you cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 best chance to detect and respond to intrusions. Unfortunately, I did not provide any clear guidance for situations where I think monitoring might not be appropriate. While this is by no means a political blog, I would not want my NSM approach to be taken as justification for monitoring and retaining every electronic transaction, especially beyond cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 security realm.

In that spirit I would like to point out three recent stories which highlight some of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 contemporary problems I see with electronic monitoring.

First is Boeing bosses spy on workers. From cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 story:

Within its bowels, The Boeing Co. holds volumes of proprietary information deemed so valuable that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 company has entire teams dedicated to making sure that private information stays private.

One such team, dubbed "enterprise" investigators, has permission to read cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 private e-mails of employees, follow cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m and collect video footage or photos of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m. Investigators can also secretly watch employee computer screens in real time and reproduce every keystroke a worker makes, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Seattle P-I has learned...

"Employees should understand that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 law generally gives employers broad authority to conduct surveillance, whecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r through e-mail, video cameras or ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r forms of tracking, including off cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 job in many cases."

The law grants companies cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 right to protect cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365mselves from employees who break cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 law, such as by embezzling money or using cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 company warehouse to run a drug-smuggling ring.

The problem, [Ed] Mierzwinski [consumer program director at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 federation of Public Interest Research Groups] said, is when companies use cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 surveillance tactics available to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m to root out whistle-blowers.

"We need greater whistle-blower protections," he said. But, "if you're using cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 company's resources and you think it's protected because you're using Hotmail, think again."


My first point on this story is that I have never advocated NSM as a means to combat fraud, waste, and abuse by employees, let alone whistle-blowers. I have almost exclusively focused on external threats. I say let legal and human resources look for non-security policy violations.

My second point on this story is that I think cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 operative word here is surveillance. NSM is not a surveillance methodology. NSM does not advocate identifying a person of interest, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n examining all traffic generated by or directed at that person. NSM is more channel- and system-centric. If I am going to conduct network surveillance of any type, I expect legal and human resources tasking. I do not engage in network surveillance for my own security purposes. I conduct NSM.

The next story is Cal-Ore Telecommunications on Solera Networks. This is a blog posting advertising cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 adoption of a packet capture appliance sold by Solera Networks to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Cal-Ore ISP in California. From cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 story:

Cal-Ore, a rural telephone company and ISP headquartered in Norcá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365rn California, has been serving customers for more than 55 years. In order to comply with CALEA requirements, Charles Boening, Cal-Ore’s network manager considered three choices. First, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y could do nothing and hope cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y never received a lawful intercept warrant request. Second, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y could contract with a trusted third-party (TTP) that would perform any tapping services and bring cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m into compliance: at a six-figure price tag with ongoing fees. Or third, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y could purchase a Solera DS 1000 from Solera Networks...

“We not only capture traffic that goes to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Internet, we can also use those extra Ecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365rnet ports to capture traffic from ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r areas of our network,” Boening said...

While not being used to fulfill a warrant, Boening uses cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Solera DS 1000 for complete network packet capture and storage. This has become an integral component to network management at Cal-Ore...

“We’ll hear from ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r providers telling us that we have a customer who is sending out spam,” said Boening. “Before I disconnect that customer, I need to verify it is a legitimate compliant. I use cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Solera Networks box to find specific traffic over a period of time and put it into an analyzer, such as WireShark, to determine whecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r it is junk. If it is, I will cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n turn off cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 customer.”


When I read this I thought "This ISP is logging all traffic that customers send to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Internet?" I read cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir terms of service and found this:

Use of any Cal-Ore Telephone network service constitutes consent to monitoring at all times. If monitoring of any device in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Cal-Ore Telephone network reveals any evidence regarding violation of copyright laws, security regulations or any instance of unauthorized use of any system, this evidence and any ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r related information, including identification information about cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 user, can and will be provided to law enforcement officials.

It appears Cal-Ore is relying on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 consent exception to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 wiretap act to not break Federal law. They could also hope that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir activity "is a necessary incident to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 rendition of his service or to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 protection of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 rights or property of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 provider of that service" and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365reby receive anocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r exception to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 wiretap act.

However, California law is a little different. As noted in Applying cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Wiretap Act to Online Communications after United States v. Councilman, California is a two-party consent state, meaning that both parties to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 communication must give consent in order to make interception of a communication permissible. I am not a lawyer (I may have to rectify that situation at some point), but it sounds like cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 consent exception is lost when a Cal-Ore user who has not granted consent communicates via IM to any Cal-Ore user.

The third story is actually a set of articles posted by The Baltimore Sun about cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 National Security Agency and "cyber security." A slightly more recent article called In focus: Targeting Internet terror offers a few items of interest:

President Bush quietly announced yesterday his plans to launch a program targeting terrorists and ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365rs who would seek to attack cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 United States via cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Internet, according to lawmakers and budget documents.

Bush requested $154 million in preliminary funding for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 initiative, which current and former government officials say is expected to become a seven-year, multibillion-dollar program to track threats in cyberspace on both government and private networks...

At cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 White House, spokesman Sean Kevelighan would say only that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 money would be used for "increased monitoring capabilities, as well as to increase cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 security of our networks."


I'm interested in this article because it and previous stories hint that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 government might monitor private networks for security purposes. This would be quite a step if true.

Monitoring remains a hot topic, so I plan to keep my eye on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se issues going forward.

Wednesday, November 14, 2007

Analyzing Protocol Hopping Covert Channel Tool

I enjoy analyzing covert channels, although my skills are far inferior to someone like Steven Murdoch. However, today via Packetstorm I learned of Protocol Hopping Covert Channel Tool by Steffen Wendzel. He wrote a text file describing his thoughts behind cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 tool called Protocol Hopping Covert Channels. Quoting cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 paper:

This paper describes a new way to implement covert channels. This is done by changing cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 protocol of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 tunnel while cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 tunnel exists and even change cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 protocol on a randomized way without restarting cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 tunnel or reconnecting to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 tunnel. A simple proof of concept tool called 'phcct' (protocol hopping covert channel tool) also known as 'takushi' (what is japanese for taxi) is available on my website http://www.doomed-reality.org. phcct implements only one (cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 easiest) version of such a randomized protocol hopping covert channel.

As soon as I read this I thought "this is so different from normal traffic, it will be easy to identify." I know that is true for manual inspection of traffic. I am not sure how automated tools would deal with it. The paper continues:

Do not forget cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 reason why doing this: It is to be stealth [sic]. Even if _one_ of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 protocols you are using is recorded, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 monitoring system will not collect ALL packets of ALL protocols in a network. This simply is a too huge amount of data. And yes, it makes cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 forensic analysis of network traffic much harder if cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re are multiple protocols used for a covert channel.

Apparently cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 author does not know about NSM or Sguil. Assuming you are performing this protocol hopping from a host on an enterprise network to a host on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Internet, a NSM sensor monitoring your Internet gateway will see and record this traffic.

I decided to give cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 author's proof of concept tool, phcct, a try. I compiled it statically on my Ubuntu laptop.

$ gcc -O -o phcct_s -fstack-protector-all -W -Wall -Wshadow -g
-ggdb *.c -lpthread -static

Next I copied cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 binary to a VM running a Ubuntu 7.10 as a live CD/.iso. I used this static version because I noticed cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Ubuntu live CD did not have cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 required libraries to compile from source, but run as a statically compiled binary it worked fine.

Now I started phcct on each workstation and hit return once each side was running. My laptop is neely, 192.168.2.101.

root@neely:~/phcct# ./phcct_s -a 192.168.2.115
starting phcct (a.k.a. takushi) ...
please press return if cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 peer is setup up.
connecting ...
connected via http
connected via ftp-data
connected via plain proto
waiting for local connection on port 9999 ...

My VM is ubuntu, 192.168.2.115.

root@ubuntu:/home/analyst# ./phcct_s -a 192.168.2.101
starting phcct (a.k.a. takushi) ...
please press return if cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 peer is setup up.
connecting ...
connected via http
connected via ftp-data
connected via plain proto
waiting for local connection on port 9999 ...

Once each side of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 tunnel was activated, I used Netcat on each system to connect to port 9999 on localhost. First, neely:

richard@neely:~$ nc -v localhost 9999
localhost [127.0.0.1] 9999 (?) open

Second, ubuntu:

analyst@ubuntu:~$ nc -v localhost 9999
localhost [127.0.0.1] 9999 (?) open

Now I was ready to send traffic. For example, I typed this on neely:

This is traffic from neely to ubuntu.

and it appeared on ubuntu:

This is traffic from neely to ubuntu.

Then I did cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 reverse. I repeated this cycle four times, for a total of five exchanges or ten total messages. When done I exited each Netcat session.

During this process I captured cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 traffic using Tshark. You can download it here.

I prefer to start cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 analysis by looking at session data. Here is what Argus 2.x thought of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 traffic.

$ ra -nn -L0 -A -r ph.1.arg -s saddr daddr sport dport proto pkts bytes
SrcAddr DstAddr Sport Dport Type SrcPkt DstPkt SAppBytes DAppBytes
192.168.2.115 192.168.2.101.43598 2510 tcp 6 4 96 0
192.168.2.115 192.168.2.101.43198 80 tcp 5 3 281 0
192.168.2.115 192.168.2.101.52158 20 tcp 6 4 96 0
192.168.2.101 192.168.2.115.49586 80 tcp 4 4 281 0
192.168.2.101 192.168.2.115.45106 20 tcp 3 3 0 0
192.168.2.101 192.168.2.115.50200 2510 tcp 7 7 192 0

You can see cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 tool using destination ports 2510, 80 and 20. There are six sessions although one of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m is empty. The five active sessions correspond to our five conversations.

Let's look at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 traffic on each using Tcpflow. In cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ls output I omit cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 first few fields for space purposes.

taosecurity:/home/analyst$ tcpflow -r ph.1.lpc
taosecurity:/home/analyst$ ls -al 192*
281 Nov 14 13:59 192.168.002.101.49586-192.168.002.115.00080
192 Nov 14 13:59 192.168.002.101.50200-192.168.002.115.02510
281 Nov 14 13:59 192.168.002.115.43198-192.168.002.101.00080
96 Nov 14 13:59 192.168.002.115.43598-192.168.002.101.02510
96 Nov 14 13:59 192.168.002.115.52158-192.168.002.101.00020

Notice cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 file sizes match cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 byte counts seen above. Here are cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 contents of each. Note cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 use of cat -tev to

taosecurity:/home/analyst$ cat -tev 192.168.002.101.49586-192.168.002.115.00080
GET / HTTP/1.1^M$
Host: google.de^M$
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0^M$
Accept: text/xml^M$
Accept-Language: en-us;q=0.5,en;q=0.3^M$
Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate^M$
Accept-Charset: ISO-8859-1,utf-8^M$
Keep-Alive: 300^M$
Connection: keep-alive^M$
Cookie: GPC=2FW=0:This is traffic from neely to ubuntu.$
^M$
^M$
taosecurity:/home/analyst$ cat -tev 192.168.002.101.50200-192.168.002.115.02510
^A^B^C0 FW=0:This is traffic from neely to ubuntu.$
^A^B^C1 FW=0:This is traffic from neely to ubuntu.$
^A^B^C3 FW=0:This is traffic from neely to ubuntu.$
^A^B^C4 FW=0:This is traffic from neely to ubuntu.$

taosecurity:/home/analyst$ cat -tev 192.168.002.115.43198-192.168.002.101.00080
GET / HTTP/1.1^M$
Host: google.de^M$
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0^M$
Accept: text/xml^M$
Accept-Language: en-us;q=0.5,en;q=0.3^M$
Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate^M$
Accept-Charset: ISO-8859-1,utf-8^M$
Keep-Alive: 300^M$
Connection: keep-alive^M$
Cookie: GPC=4FW=0:This is traffic from ubuntu to neely.$
^M$
^M$

taosecurity:/home/analyst$ cat -tev 192.168.002.115.43598-192.168.002.101.02510
^A^B^C0 FW=0:This is traffic from ubuntu to neely.$
^A^B^C1 FW=0:This is traffic from ubuntu to neely.$

taosecurity:/home/analyst$ cat -tev 192.168.002.115.52158-192.168.002.101.00020
^A^B^C2 FW=0:This is traffic from ubuntu to neely.$
^A^B^C3 FW=0:This is traffic from ubuntu to neely.$

At cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 end of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 day we have messages exchanged using one real protocol (HTTP, with payload in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 cookie field) and two pseudo-protocols (raw traffic on port 2510 TCP and attempted simulated FTP data traffic). The FTP data traffic isn't simulated properly because cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 SYN segments go to port 20 TCP.

$ tcpdump -n -t -r ph.1.lpc port 20
reading from file ph.1.lpc, link-type EN10MB (Ecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365rnet)
IP 192.168.2.115.52158 > 192.168.2.101.20:
S 2100176842:2100176842(0) win 5840
IP 192.168.2.101.20 > 192.168.2.115.52158:
S 3955486862:3955486862(0) ack 2100176843 win 5792
IP 192.168.2.115.52158 > 192.168.2.101.20: . ack 1 win 183

IP 192.168.2.101.45106 > 192.168.2.115.20:
S 3970907263:3970907263(0) win 5840
IP 192.168.2.115.20 > 192.168.2.101.45106:
S 671130558:671130558(0) ack 3970907264
IP 192.168.2.101.45106 > 192.168.2.115.20: . ack 1 win 1460
IP 192.168.2.115.52158 > 192.168.2.101.20: P 1:49(48) ack 1 win 183
IP 192.168.2.101.20 > 192.168.2.115.52158: . ack 49 win 1448
IP 192.168.2.115.52158 > 192.168.2.101.20: P 49:97(48) ack 1 win 183
IP 192.168.2.101.20 > 192.168.2.115.52158: . ack 97 win 1448
IP 192.168.2.115.52158 > 192.168.2.101.20: F 97:97(0) ack 1 win 183
IP 192.168.2.115.20 > 192.168.2.101.45106: F 1:1(0) ack 1 win 181
IP 192.168.2.101.45106 > 192.168.2.115.20: F 1:1(0) ack 2 win 1460
IP 192.168.2.101.20 > 192.168.2.115.52158: F 1:1(0) ack 98 win 1448
IP 192.168.2.115.20 > 192.168.2.101.45106: . ack 2 win 181
IP 192.168.2.115.52158 > 192.168.2.101.20: . ack 2 win 183

Real active FTP data traffic comes from port 20 TCP.

Can this technique be improved? Sure. Is it tough to analyze? Possibly. If you use a packet-by-packet approach, you can see what's happening. For example, here are a few packets containing payloads. Notice cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 use of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Tshark display filter using cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 -R switch.

richard@neely:~$ tshark -r ph.1.lpc -x -R 'tcp.len >= 20'
19 62.570303 192.168.2.101 50200 192.168.2.115 2510 TCP 50200 > 2510
[PSH, ACK] Seq=1 Ack=1 Win=5840 Len=48 TSV=4768072 TSER=3038481

0000 00 13 02 4c 30 2d 00 13 02 4c 30 2d 08 00 45 00 ...L0-...L0-..E.
0010 00 64 24 88 40 00 40 06 8f e3 c0 a8 02 65 c0 a8 .d$.@.@......e..
0020 02 73 c4 18 09 ce eb e8 a2 75 28 9d e1 d0 80 18 .s.......u(.....
0030 05 b4 e3 5b 00 00 01 01 08 0a 00 48 c1 48 00 2e ...[.......H.H..
0040 5d 11 01 02 03 30 20 46 57 3d 30 3a 54 68 69 73 ]....0 FW=0:This
0050 20 69 73 20 74 72 61 66 66 69 63 20 66 72 6f 6d is traffic from
0060 20 6e 65 65 6c 79 20 74 6f 20 75 62 75 6e 74 75 neely to ubuntu
0070 2e 0a ..

21 70.543503 192.168.2.115 43598 192.168.2.101 2510 TCP 43598 > 2510
[PSH, ACK] Seq=1 Ack=1 Win=5856 Len=48 TSV=3055661 TSER=4752430

0000 00 13 02 4c 30 2d 00 13 02 4c 30 2d 08 00 45 00 ...L0-...L0-..E.
0010 00 64 13 0f 40 00 40 06 a1 5c c0 a8 02 73 c0 a8 .d..@.@..\...s..
0020 02 65 aa 4e 09 ce 7d 50 49 4a eb ba 86 09 80 18 .e.N..}PIJ......
0030 00 b7 70 7a 00 00 01 01 08 0a 00 2e a0 2d 00 48 ..pz.........-.H
0040 84 2e 01 02 03 30 20 46 57 3d 30 3a 54 68 69 73 .....0 FW=0:This
0050 20 69 73 20 74 72 61 66 66 69 63 20 66 72 6f 6d is traffic from
0060 20 75 62 75 6e 74 75 20 74 6f 20 6e 65 65 6c 79 ubuntu to neely
0070 2e 0a ..

23 84.876175 192.168.2.101 50200 192.168.2.115 2510 TCP 50200 > 2510
[PSH, ACK] Seq=49 Ack=1 Win=5840 Len=48 TSV=4773648 TSER=3053597

0000 00 13 02 4c 30 2d 00 13 02 4c 30 2d 08 00 45 00 ...L0-...L0-..E.
0010 00 64 24 89 40 00 40 06 8f e2 c0 a8 02 65 c0 a8 .d$.@.@......e..
0020 02 73 c4 18 09 ce eb e8 a2 a5 28 9d e1 d0 80 18 .s........(.....
0030 05 b4 92 56 00 00 01 01 08 0a 00 48 d7 10 00 2e ...V.......H....
0040 98 1d 01 02 03 31 20 46 57 3d 30 3a 54 68 69 73 .....1 FW=0:This
0050 20 69 73 20 74 72 61 66 66 69 63 20 66 72 6f 6d is traffic from
0060 20 6e 65 65 6c 79 20 74 6f 20 75 62 75 6e 74 75 neely to ubuntu
0070 2e 0a ..

25 88.388511 192.168.2.115 43598 192.168.2.101 2510 TCP 43598 > 2510
[PSH, ACK] Seq=49 Ack=1 Win=5856 Len=48 TSV=3060172 TSER=4770065

0000 00 13 02 4c 30 2d 00 13 02 4c 30 2d 08 00 45 00 ...L0-...L0-..E.
0010 00 64 13 10 40 00 40 06 a1 5b c0 a8 02 73 c0 a8 .d..@.@..[...s..
0020 02 65 aa 4e 09 ce 7d 50 49 7a eb ba 86 09 80 18 .e.N..}PIz......
0030 00 b7 19 c7 00 00 01 01 08 0a 00 2e b1 cc 00 48 ...............H
0040 c9 11 01 02 03 31 20 46 57 3d 30 3a 54 68 69 73 .....1 FW=0:This
0050 20 69 73 20 74 72 61 66 66 69 63 20 66 72 6f 6d is traffic from
0060 20 75 62 75 6e 74 75 20 74 6f 20 6e 65 65 6c 79 ubuntu to neely
0070 2e 0a ..

27 97.214303 192.168.2.101 49586 192.168.2.115 80 HTTP GET / HTTP/1.1

0000 00 13 02 4c 30 2d 00 13 02 4c 30 2d 08 00 45 00 ...L0-...L0-..E.
0010 01 4d e2 06 40 00 40 06 d1 7b c0 a8 02 65 c0 a8 .M..@.@..{...e..
0020 02 73 c1 b2 00 50 ec 6f 64 f6 27 b7 a8 06 80 18 .s...P.od.'.....
0030 05 b4 16 d2 00 00 01 01 08 0a 00 48 e3 1d 00 2e ...........H....
0040 5d 0f 47 45 54 20 2f 20 48 54 54 50 2f 31 2e 31 ].GET / HTTP/1.1
0050 0d 0a 48 6f 73 74 3a 20 67 6f 6f 67 6c 65 2e 64 ..Host: google.d
0060 65 0d 0a 55 73 65 72 2d 41 67 65 6e 74 3a 20 4d e..User-Agent: M
0070 6f 7a 69 6c 6c 61 2f 35 2e 30 0d 0a 41 63 63 65 ozilla/5.0..Acce
0080 70 74 3a 20 74 65 78 74 2f 78 6d 6c 0d 0a 41 63 pt: text/xml..Ac
0090 63 65 70 74 2d 4c 61 6e 67 75 61 67 65 3a 20 65 cept-Language: e
00a0 6e 2d 75 73 3b 71 3d 30 2e 35 2c 65 6e 3b 71 3d n-us;q=0.5,en;q=
00b0 30 2e 33 0d 0a 41 63 63 65 70 74 2d 45 6e 63 6f 0.3..Accept-Enco
00c0 64 69 6e 67 3a 20 67 7a 69 70 2c 64 65 66 6c 61 ding: gzip,defla
00d0 74 65 0d 0a 41 63 63 65 70 74 2d 43 68 61 72 73 te..Accept-Chars
00e0 65 74 3a 20 49 53 4f 2d 38 38 35 39 2d 31 2c 75 et: ISO-8859-1,u
00f0 74 66 2d 38 0d 0a 4b 65 65 70 2d 41 6c 69 76 65 tf-8..Keep-Alive
0100 3a 20 33 30 30 0d 0a 43 6f 6e 6e 65 63 74 69 6f : 300..Connectio
0110 6e 3a 20 6b 65 65 70 2d 61 6c 69 76 65 0d 0a 43 n: keep-alive..C
0120 6f 6f 6b 69 65 3a 20 47 50 43 3d 32 46 57 3d 30 ookie: GPC=2FW=0
0130 3a 54 68 69 73 20 69 73 20 74 72 61 66 66 69 63 :This is traffic
0140 20 66 72 6f 6d 20 6e 65 65 6c 79 20 74 6f 20 75 from neely to u
0150 62 75 6e 74 75 2e 0a 0d 0a 0d 0a buntu......

This tool demonstrates cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 importance of a few NSM concepts. First, intruders are unpredictable. (Remember I use cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 term "intruder" to mean anyone doing something you don't like on your network, i.e., any policy violater. Second, by collecting everything and investigating once you have indicators, you can find activity not observed by existing inspection and blocking systems. Third, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re is no substitute for full content. Statistics are nice, sessions are better, but only full content reveals what's really happening. Even session tools can be fooled or misguided, or at least have cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir output subject to misinterpretation.

I expect to see additional iterations of this tool and technique.

Monday, November 12, 2007

Great Papers from Honeynet Project

If you haven't seen cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m yet, Know Your Enemy: Behind cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Scenes of Malicious Web Servers and Know Your Enemy: Malicious Web Servers are two great papers by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Honeynet Project. You might want to see Web Server Botnets and Server Farms as Attack Platforms by Gadi Evron as background. You'll notice people like e0n are using NSM to combat bots. I have not seen any IRC-controlled SIP/VoIP attack bots and botnets yet. If you think your IPS will save you against bots, keep in mind cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 time it takes to update some of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m. I also recommend reading The World's Biggest Botnets by Kelly Jackson Higgins.

Sunday, November 11, 2007

FreeBSD Binary Upgrade News

If you've read my previous posts on FreeBSD binary upgrades you'll see that Colin Percival's work on this subject has been one of my favorite additions to FreeBSD during cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 last few years. I recommend reading cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 latest two posts on Colin's blog for even more good news: FreeBSD minor version upgrades and FreeBSD major version upgrades using FreeBSD update.

I plan to deploy FreeBSD 7.0 in production soon, and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 native capability to upgrade cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 OS using binary means is incredibly welcome. I build sensors to inspect and capture traffic, not recompile cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365mselves. Congratulations and thanks to Colin for all of his work in this area and for integrating FreeBSD update into cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 base OS.

On anocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r FreeBSD note, I need to try this: Building bootable FreeBSD/i386 images.

Saturday, November 10, 2007

Impact of NetFlow on Routers

Thanks to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 great IOShints blog for pointing me to NetFlow Performance Analysis. If you have any questions regarding cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 impact of generating NetFlow records on your routers, check out this Cisco white paper.

Thursday, November 08, 2007

Must-Read Snort 3.0 Post

If you care at all about Snort you must read Snort 3.0 Architecture Series Part 1: Overview by Marty Roesch. Keep reading his blog for future descriptions of Snort 3.0. On a related note, Marty released Daemonlogger 1.0 recently. Daemonlogger is an open source full content packet logging tool.

Tuesday, November 06, 2007

More Unpredictable Intruders

Search my blog for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 term unpredictable and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 majority of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 results describe discussions of one of my three security principles, namely

Many intruders are unpredictable.

Two posts by pdp perfectly demonstrate this:

How many of you who are not security researchers even knew that data: or jar: protocols existed? (It's rhetorical, no need to answer in a comment.) Do you think your silver bullet security product knows about it? How about your users or developers?

No, this is anocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r case where cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 first time you learn of a feature in a product is in a description of how to attack it. This is why cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 "ahead of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 threat" slogan at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 left is a pile of garbage. This is anocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r example of Attacker 3.0 exploiting features devised by Developer 2.5 while Security 1.0 is still thinking about how great it is no big worms have hit since 2005. (The specific cases here are worse than Developer 2.5, since jar: and data: protocols are apparently old!)

How do I propose handling issues like this? As always, NSM is helpful. If you've been keeping track of what happens in your enterprise, you can perform some retrospective network analysis (RNA) to see if you've seen this latest attack vector. (RNA is a term which Network Instruments would like to have coined. I like it, even though cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 concept of recording traffic in this manner dates back to Todd Heberlein's original Network Security Monitor in 1988. The first mention I can quickly find is in this 1997 paper Netanalyzer: A retrospective network analysis tool.)

RNA and, from this point of enlightenment, ongoing network analysis via NSM and, ideally, ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r forms of instrumentation (logs, etc.) facilitates impact assessment. Who cares if cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 sky is falling somewhere else, as reported in whatever online news story -- is your sky falling? If yes, what's cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 damage? How best can we mitigate and recover? These are cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 sorts of questions one can answer when some data is available, enabling management by fact and avoiding management by belief.

Monday, November 05, 2007

Deflect Silver Bullets

That's quite an image, isn't it? It's ISS CEO Tom Noonan holding a silver bullet, announcing cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Proventia IPS product in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 October 2003 issue of ISS' Connect magazine. Raise your hand if you think IPS or anything else ISS has produced is a silver bullet. No takers?

I don't mention this to criticize ISS, specifically. Racá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r, I'd like to emphasize cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 importance of proper frames of reference when considering security.

Maybe this story will help explain my point. In cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 early 1990s as a cadet at camp USAFA I took at least 14 technical classes, including math, science, and engineering subjects. These core classes are cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 reason every cadet graduates with a BS and not a BA, regardless of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 field of study. Remember, I was a history and political science double major, preparing for a career in Air Force intelligence. One of my fellow history majors asked our astronautical engineering professor why we had to sit through his class. I still remember his answer:

One day you'll meet with a defense contractor trying to sell you a new satellite system. He'll promise cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 world, saying things like "We can park that satellite right over Moscow in geosynchronous orbit to provide you imagery."

When you hear that I want you to ask "How is that possible? What is going to keep cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 satellite cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re?"

I want you to know how to think properly about that problem, even though you may have forgotten all cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 details by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n.


(For those of you who forget your astronautical engineering, it's not possible to park a satellite in geosynchronous orbit anywhere except cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 equator, unless you're taking extreme measures to actively keep cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 device in place beyond what's required for normal station-keeping.)

I find that many of those performing digital security work, most generic IT managers, and nearly all nontechnical managers do not know how to think about security properly. They think it's possible to park a satellite over Moscow, Russia as easily as Quito, Ecuador. They have no conceptual framework for digital security. They are looking for digital security silver bullets even though no analog silver bullet has ever killed cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 pirates, petty bandits, organized criminals, foreign intelligence services, or any of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r threats who have plagued humanity for hundreds of years.

Sloppy thinking is our greatest vulnerability. Forget about user education; I recommend management education. Deflect silver bullets.

Bejtlich Teaching at Black Hat DC 2008 Training

Black Hat was kind enough to invite me back to teach TCP/IP Weapons School at Black Hat DC 2008 on 18-19 February 2008, at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Westin Washington DC City Center. This is currently my only scheduled training class in 2008. As you can see from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 course description I will focus on OSI model layers 2-5 and add material on network security operations, like monitoring, incident response, and forensics. The cost for this single two-day class is $2000 until 1 January, when cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 price will increase. Register while seats are still available -- both of my sessions in Las Vegas sold out. Thank you.

Saturday, November 03, 2007

Russ McRee on Argus and NSM

Russ McRee followed his excellent discussion of NSM and Sguil in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 October InfoSecMag with a new article called Argus – Auditing network activity (.pdf), published in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 November 2007 ISSA Journal. It's anocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r great read.

Snort Report 10 Posted

My 10th Snort Report on Snort 2.8.0 new features: IPv6 and port lists is now available online. From cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 start of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 article:

Snort 2.8.0 was recently published with several features long desired by Snort veterans. These new features include IPv6, port lists, packet performance monitoring and control of actions enabled by preprocessor or decoder events. This edition of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Snort Report provides details on IPv6 and port lists that VARs and systems integrators can use to optimize cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir use of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 open source intrusion detection system.

In cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 next Snort Report I plan to look at ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r features in Snort 2.8.