Showing posts with label sysadmin. Show all posts
Showing posts with label sysadmin. Show all posts

Wednesday, April 11, 2007

Burning CDs on Ubuntu

Sometimes this blog is just a place for me to take notes on tasks I want to repeat in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 future, like burning CDs. In this case I'm running Ubuntu and using cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 new portable Sony DRX-S50U Multi-Format DVD Burner I bought to accompany my Thinkpad x60s on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 road.

First I created an .iso of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 files I wanted on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 CD-R.

richard@neely:/var/tmp$ mkisofs -J -R -o /data/shmoocon2007hack.iso shmoocon2007/
INFO: UTF-8 character encoding detected by locale settings.
Assuming UTF-8 encoded filenames on source filesystem,
use -input-charset to override.
Using shmoo000.pca;1 for /shmoocon_hack_rd2_timeadj.pcap (shmoocon_hack_rd1_timeadj.pcap)
1.68% done, estimate finish Wed Apr 11 21:23:45 2007
...truncated...

Second I asked cdrecord to find cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 burner.

richard@neely:/var/tmp$ sudo cdrecord -scanbus
Cdrecord-Clone 2.01.01a03 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2005 Joerg Schilling
NOTE: this version of cdrecord is an inofficial (modified) release of cdrecord
and thus may have bugs that are not present in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 original version.
Please send bug reports and support requests to .
The original author should not be bocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365red with problems of this version.

cdrecord: Warning: Running on Linux-2.6.17-11-generic
cdrecord: There are unsettled issues with Linux-2.5 and newer.
cdrecord: If you have unexpected problems, please try Linux-2.4 or Solaris.
Linux sg driver version: 3.5.33
Using libscg version 'debian-0.8debian2'.
cdrecord: Warning: using inofficial version of libscg (debian-0.8debian2 '@(#)scsitransp.c
1.91 04/06/17 Copyright 1988,1995,2000-2004 J. Schilling').
scsibus0:
0,0,0 0) 'ATA ' 'TOSHIBA MK6032GS' 'AS31' Disk
0,1,0 1) *
0,2,0 2) *
0,3,0 3) *
0,4,0 4) *
0,5,0 5) *
0,6,0 6) *
0,7,0 7) *
scsibus4:
4,0,0 400) 'Optiarc ' 'DVD RW AD-7540A ' '1.D0' Removable CD-ROM
4,1,0 401) *
4,2,0 402) *
4,3,0 403) *
4,4,0 404) *
4,5,0 405) *
4,6,0 406) *
4,7,0 407) *

Third I burned cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 CD-R.

richard@neely:/var/tmp$ sudo cdrecord -v dev=4,0,0 driveropts=burnfree -eject
-data /data/shmoocon2007hack.iso
cdrecord: No write mode specified.
cdrecord: Asuming -tao mode.
cdrecord: Future versions of cdrecord may have different drive dependent defaults.
cdrecord: Continuing in 5 seconds...
Cdrecord-Clone 2.01.01a03 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2005 Joerg Schilling
NOTE: this version of cdrecord is an inofficial (modified) release of cdrecord
and thus may have bugs that are not present in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 original version.
Please send bug reports and support requests to .
The original author should not be bocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365red with problems of this version.

cdrecord: Warning: Running on Linux-2.6.17-11-generic
cdrecord: There are unsettled issues with Linux-2.5 and newer.
cdrecord: If you have unexpected problems, please try Linux-2.4 or Solaris.
TOC Type: 1 = CD-ROM
scsidev: '4,0,0'
scsibus: 4 target: 0 lun: 0
Linux sg driver version: 3.5.33
Using libscg version 'debian-0.8debian2'.
cdrecord: Warning: using inofficial version of libscg (debian-0.8debian2 '@(#)scsitransp.c
1.91 04/06/17 Copyright 1988,1995,2000-2004 J. Schilling').
Driveropts: 'burnfree'
SCSI buffer size: 64512
atapi: 1
Device type : Removable CD-ROM
Version : 0
Response Format: 2
Capabilities :
Vendor_info : 'Optiarc '
Identifikation : 'DVD RW AD-7540A '
Revision : '1.D0'
Device seems to be: Generic mmc2 DVD-R/DVD-RW.
Current: 0x0009
Profile: 0x002B
Profile: 0x001B
Profile: 0x001A
Profile: 0x0016
Profile: 0x0015
Profile: 0x0014
Profile: 0x0013
Profile: 0x0012
Profile: 0x0011
Profile: 0x0010
Profile: 0x000A
Profile: 0x0009 (current)
Profile: 0x0008 (current)
Profile: 0x0002
cdrecord: This version of cdrecord does not include DVD-R/DVD-RW support code.
cdrecord: See /usr/share/doc/cdrecord/README.DVD.Debian for details on DVD support.
Using generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver (mmc_cdr).
Driver flags : MMC-3 SWABAUDIO BURNFREE
Supported modes: TAO PACKET SAO SAO/R96R RAW/R96R
Drive buf size : 890880 = 870 KB
FIFO size : 4194304 = 4096 KB
Track 01: data 583 MB
Total size: 670 MB (66:23.13) = 298735 sectors
Lout start: 670 MB (66:25/10) = 298735 sectors
Current Secsize: 2048
ATIP info from disk:
Indicated writing power: 5
Is not unrestricted
Is not erasable
Disk sub type: Medium Type A, high Beta category (A+) (3)
ATIP start of lead in: -11634 (97:26/66)
ATIP start of lead out: 359846 (79:59/71)
Disk type: Short strategy type (Phthalocyanine or similar)
Manuf. index: 3
Manufacturer: CMC Magnetics Corporation
Blocks total: 359846 Blocks current: 359846 Blocks remaining: 61111
Starting to write CD/DVD at speed 24 in real TAO mode for single session.
Last chance to quit, starting real write 0 seconds. Operation starts.
Waiting for reader process to fill input buffer ... input buffer ready.
BURN-Free is ON.
Performing OPC...
Starting new track at sector: 0
Track 01: 583 of 583 MB written (fifo 100%) [buf 100%] 8.3x.
Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 611805184/611805184 (298733 sectors).
Writing time: 523.078s
Average write speed 7.8x.
Min drive buffer fill was 100%
Fixating...
Fixating time: 42.065s
BURN-Free was never needed.
cdrecord: fifo had 9637 puts and 9637 gets.
cdrecord: fifo was 0 times empty and 9555 times full, min fill was 79%.

Last I checked cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 files on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 CD.

richard@neely:/var/tmp$ ls -alh /media/cdrom0/
total 584M
drwxr-xr-x 2 richard richard 2.0K 2007-03-26 16:27 .
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 1.0K 2007-04-05 15:33 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 richard richard 149M 2007-03-26 16:19 shmoocon_hack_rd1_timeadj.pcap
-rw-r--r-- 1 richard richard 435M 2007-03-26 16:27 shmoocon_hack_rd2_timeadj.pcap

Looks good!

Wednesday, August 16, 2006

YouTube-dl

File this in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 small yet helpful utility bin. You can use YouTube-dl to download videos from YouTube. I don't have Flash installed on FreeBSD, but I do have Mplayer. This means I can use YouTube-dl as follows:

orr:/home/richard$ python youtube-dl
usage: youtube-dl [options] video_url

options:
-h, --help print this help text and exit
-v, --version print program version and exit
-u USERNAME, --username=USERNAME
account username
-p PASSWORD, --password=PASSWORD
account password
-o FILE, --output=FILE
output video file name
-q, --quiet activates quiet mode
-s, --simulate do not download video

orr:/home/richard$ python youtube-dl http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bPXF-iZh488
Retrieving video webpage... done.
Extracting video URL parameters... done.
Video data found at http://youtube-082.vo.llnwd.net/d1/01/F3/bPXF-iZh488.flv
Retrieving video data... 6608k of 6608k done.
Video data saved to bPXF-iZh488.flv
orr:/home/richard$ mplayer bPXF-iZh488.flv
MPlayer 1.0pre7try2-3.4.4 (C) 2000-2005 MPlayer Team
...edited...
Starting playback...
...truncated...

Obviously as an added benefit I can keep a local archive of my favorite videos.

I learned about this program through Freshmeat.net, but I just saw a FreeBSD port was added today.

Thursday, June 29, 2006

Binary Upgrade of FreeBSD 6.0 to 6.1

Several months ago I posted how I used Colin Percival's freebsd-update program to perform a binary upgrade from FreeBSD 5.4 to 6.0 remotely over SSH. Thanks to Colin's latest work, I was able to successfully perform a binary upgrade from FreeBSD 6.0 to 6.1 remotely over SSH.

hacom:/root/upgrade# uname -a
FreeBSD hacom.taosecurity.com 6.0-SECURITY FreeBSD 6.0-SECURITY #0:
Tue Apr 18 08:56:09 UTC 2006
root@builder.daemonology.net:/usr/obj/usr/src/sys/GENERIC i386

hacom:/root# fetch http://www.daemonology.net/freebsd-upgrade-6.0-to-6.1/upgrade-6.0-to-6.1.tgz
upgrade-6.0-to-6.1.tgz 0% of 4706 kB
hacom:/root# sha256 upgrade-6.0-to-6.1.tgz
SHA256 (upgrade-6.0-to-6.1.tgz) = 29075fc5711e0b20d879c69d12bbe5414c1c56d597c8116da7acc0d291116d2f
hacom:/root# tar -xzvf upgrade-6.0-to-6.1.tgz
x upgrade
x upgrade/upgrade.sh
x upgrade/6.1-index
x upgrade/6.0-index
hacom:/root# cd upgrade
hacom:/root/upgrade# ./upgrade.sh^M^M
Examining system... done.

The following components of FreeBSD seem to be installed:
kernel|generic world|base world|dict world|doc world|manpages

The following components of FreeBSD do not seem to be installed:
kernel|smp src|base src|bin src|contrib src|crypto src|etc src|games
src|gnu src|include src|krb5 src|libexec src|lib src|release src|rescue
src|sbin src|secure src|share src|sys src|tools src|ubin src|usbin
world|catpages world|games world|info world|proflibs^M

Does this look reasonable (y/n)? y

Examining system (this will take a bit longer)... done.

The following files from FreeBSD 6.0 have been modified since cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y were
installed, but will be deleted or overwritten by new versions:
/.cshrc /root/.cshrc /usr/share/man/whatis

The following files from FreeBSD 6.0 have been modified since cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y were
installed, and will not be touched:
/etc/hosts /etc/manpath.config /etc/master.passwd /etc/motd /etc/passwd
/etc/pwd.db /etc/shells /etc/spwd.db /etc/ttys /var/db/locate.database
/var/log/sendmail.st

The following files from FreeBSD 6.0 have been modified since cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y were
installed, and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 changes in FreeBSD 6.1 will be merged into cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365
existing files:
/etc/group

Does this look reasonable (y/n)? y

Preparing to fetch files... done.
Fetching 1729 patches....10....20....30....40....edited...1720.... done.
Applying patches... done.
Fetching 433 files....10....20....30....40....50....60...edited...done.
Decompressing and verifying... done.
Attempting to automatically merge configuration files... done.

The following changes, which occurred between FreeBSD 6.0 and FreeBSD
6.1, have been merged into /etc/group:
--- merge/old/etc/group Thu Jun 29 07:03:59 2006
+++ merge/new/etc/group Thu Jun 29 07:04:00 2006
@@ -41,5 +41,6 @@
student8:*:1012:
student9:*:1013:
student10:*:1014:
student11:*:1015:
richard:*:1016:
+audit:*:77:
Does this look reasonable (y/n)? y

Installing new kernel into /boot/GENERIC... done.
Moving /boot/kernel to /boot/kernel.old... done.
Moving /boot/GENERIC to /boot/kernel... done.
Removing schg flag from existing files... done.
Installing new non-kernel files... done.
Removing left-over files from FreeBSD 6.0... done.
To start running FreeBSD 6.1, reboot.
hacom:/root/upgrade# reboot

hacom# freebsd-update fetch
Fetching updates signature...
Fetching updates...
Fetching hash list signature...
Fetching hash list...
Examining local system...
Fetching updates...
/boot/kernel/smbfs.ko...
/usr/libexec/sendmail/sendmail...
/usr/sbin/ypserv...
Updates fetched

To install cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se updates, run: '/usr/local/sbin/freebsd-update install'
hacom# freebsd-update install
Backing up /boot/kernel/smbfs.ko...
Installing new /boot/kernel/smbfs.ko...
Backing up /usr/libexec/sendmail/sendmail...
Installing new /usr/libexec/sendmail/sendmail...
Backing up /usr/sbin/ypserv...
Installing new /usr/sbin/ypserv...
hacom# reboot

hacom:/home/richard$ uname -a
FreeBSD hacom.taosecurity.com 6.1-RELEASE FreeBSD 6.1-RELEASE #0:
Sun May 7 04:32:43 UTC 2006
root@opus.cse.buffalo.edu:/usr/obj/usr/src/sys/GENERIC i386

I like it. Easy, fast, no compiling and it works. Kudos to Colin!

Thursday, April 13, 2006

Installing FreeBSD Java Binaries

I just posted about cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 new FreeBSD Java packages. I figured I would try cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m out and show how cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 process works. It's been a while since I last described installing Java, back when compiling from source was required.

After downloading cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 binary for FreeBSD 6.0, I tried to install it.

orr:/tmp# ls -al diablo-jdk-freebsd6-1.5.0.06.00.tbz
-rw-r--r-- 1 richard wheel 54624741 Apr 13 07:30 diablo-jdk-freebsd6-1.5.0.06.00.tbz
orr:/tmp# pkg_add -v diablo-jdk-freebsd6-1.5.0.06.00.tbz
Requested space: 218498964 bytes, free space: 4397770752 bytes in /var/tmp/instmp.FMG03P
Package 'diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00' depends on 'xorg-libraries-6.8.2' with
'x11/xorg-libraries' origin.
- already installed.
Package 'diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00' depends on 'javavmwrapper-2.0_5' with
'java/javavmwrapper' origin.
pkg_add: could not find package javavmwrapper-2.0_5 !
pkg_add: 1 package addition(s) failed

That didn't work. Let me add cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 package it requires.

orr:/tmp# setenv PACKAGESITE ftp://ftp2.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-6-stable/Latest/
orr:/tmp# pkg_add -vr javavmwrapper
looking up ftp2.freebsd.org
connecting to ftp2.freebsd.org:21
setting passive mode
opening data connection
initiating transfer
Fetching ftp://ftp2.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-6-stable/Latest/javavmwrapper.tbz...
x +CONTENTS
x +COMMENT
x +DESC
x +INSTALL
x +DEINSTALL
x +MTREE_DIRS
x man/man1/checkvms.1.gz
x man/man1/javavm.1.gz
x man/man1/registervm.1.gz
x man/man1/unregistervm.1.gz
x man/man5/javavms.5.gz
x bin/classpath
x bin/javavm
x bin/registervm
x bin/unregistervm
x bin/checkvms
tar command returns 0 status
Done.
Running pre-install for javavmwrapper-2.0_6..
extract: Package name is javavmwrapper-2.0_6
extract: CWD to /usr/local
extract: /usr/local/man/man1/checkvms.1.gz
extract: /usr/local/man/man1/javavm.1.gz
extract: /usr/local/man/man1/registervm.1.gz
extract: /usr/local/man/man1/unregistervm.1.gz
extract: /usr/local/man/man5/javavms.5.gz
extract: /usr/local/bin/classpath
extract: /usr/local/bin/javavm
extract: /usr/local/bin/registervm
extract: /usr/local/bin/unregistervm
extract: /usr/local/bin/checkvms
extract: CWD to .
Running mtree for javavmwrapper-2.0_6..
mtree -U -f +MTREE_DIRS -d -e -p /usr/local >/dev/null
Running post-install for javavmwrapper-2.0_6..
Attempting to record package into /var/db/pkg/javavmwrapper-2.0_6..
Package javavmwrapper-2.0_6 registered in /var/db/pkg/javavmwrapper-2.0_6

Now I'll add cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 package again.

orr:/tmp# pkg_add -v diablo-jdk-freebsd6-1.5.0.06.00.tbz
Requested space: 218498964 bytes, free space: 4397742080 bytes in /var/tmp/instmp.PLZjeE
Package 'diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00' depends on 'xorg-libraries-6.8.2' with 'x11/xorg-libraries' origin.
- already installed.
Package 'diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00' depends on 'javavmwrapper-2.0_5' with 'java/javavmwrapper' origin.
- already installed.
Running pre-install for diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00..
FREEBSD FOUNDATION

Diablo Caffe Version 1.5.0-0 ("Software")

END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT

You may install this Software only if you are currently a licensee
of FreeBSD (including substantially similar versions of FreeBSD) for
your own internal use only with your copy(ies) of FreeBSD (including
substantially similar versions of FreeBSD). If you are an OEM - a person
who will bundle cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Software with ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r software before distributing cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365
bundled product to end users - you must read and "accept" cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 provisions
of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 OEM License Agreement. You must read cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 License Agreement and
enter "YES" below to continue your install. By doing so, you agree to
be bound by all of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 terms of this License Agreement.
...edited...
Do you agree to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 above license terms? [yes or no]
yes
extract: Package name is diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00
extract: CWD to /usr/local
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/COPYRIGHT
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/LICENSE
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/README.html
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/THIRDPARTYLICENSEREADME.txt
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/bin/ControlPanel
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/bin/HtmlConverter
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/bin/appletviewer
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/bin/apt
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/bin/extcheck
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/bin/idlj
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/bin/jar
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/bin/jarsigner
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/bin/java
...edited...
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/sample/nio/server/URLDumper.java
extract: /usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/src.zip
extract: execute '/usr/local/bin/registervm
"/usr/local/diablo-jdk1.5.0/bin/java # DiabloCaffe${JDK_VERSION}"'
extract: CWD to .
Running mtree for diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00..
mtree -U -f +MTREE_DIRS -d -e -p /usr/local >/dev/null
Running post-install for diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00..
Attempting to record package into /var/db/pkg/diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00..
Trying to record dependency on package 'xorg-libraries-6.8.2' with 'x11/xorg-libraries' origin.
pkg_add: warning: package 'diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00' requires 'xorg-libraries-6.8.2',
but 'xorg-libraries-6.9.0' is installed
Trying to record dependency on package 'javavmwrapper-2.0_5' with 'java/javavmwrapper' origin.
pkg_add: warning: package 'diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00' requires 'javavmwrapper-2.0_5', but
'javavmwrapper-2.0_6' is installed
Package diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00 registered in /var/db/pkg/diablo-jdk-1.5.0.06.00

To see if it worked, I tried launching cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Java program Metacoretex. Since I could get cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 program to run, it looks like cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Java binaries are operating properly.

Monday, March 06, 2006

Listening to Audio CDs on FreeBSD

Today I received a CD from Convention CDs, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 company that recorded my presentation at RSA 2006 last month. The company Web site is basically blank, but if you want to order a copy of my talk "Traffic-Centric Incident Response and Forensics" you can send email to sales at conventioncds dot com. My CD bears number CD 94-2006, which may be its product number. I get no compensation from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se CDs.

I needed a way to listen to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 CD in FreeBSD, so I decided to go a low-impact approach and use xmcd. I could not find a precompiled package, but after adding cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 packages needed for building cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 port I found cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 port a quick build. I had to run cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 following configuration routine before I could listen to CDs.

# /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xmcd/config/config.sh

Xmcd version 3.3.2 Configuration Program
Setting up for host: orr.taosecurity.com
----------------------------------------

*** CDDB(R) ACCESS CONFIGURATION ***

If your system has Internet connectivity and functional
domain name service (DNS), you should answer 'y' to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 next
question. If this system is not linked to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Internet at all,
cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n answer 'n'.

Would you like to use cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 free Internet CDDB(R) service
for album/track information? [y] n

Internet CDDB server access is disabled.
To enable it later, run cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xmcd/config/config.sh
script again.


*** DRIVE CONFIGURATION ***

Configuring drive 0...

Does this drive use a SCSI interface? [n] n

Non-SCSI drives are currently supported only on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365
following platforms:

BSDI/WindRiver BSD/OS
Compaq/HP Tru64 UNIX, Digital UNIX
FreeBSD
HP-UX
IBM AIX
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
QNX
SCO Open Server
Sun Solaris

Do you want to continue? [y] y

Are you using cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 SCSI Emulation (ATAPI-CAM) interface? [n]

Enter device path: [/dev/acd0]

Please select a Device Interface Method:

1. SunOS/Solaris/Linux/QNX ioctl method
2. FreeBSD/NetBSD/OpenBSD ioctl method
3. IBM AIX IDE ioctl method
4. BSDI/WindRiver BSD/OS ATAPI
5. SCO Open Server ATAPI BTLD
6. Compaq/HP Tru64 UNIX, Digital UNIX ATAPI
7. HP-UX ATAPI
8. Linux SCSI Emulation for ATAPI drives
9. FreeBSD ATAPI-CAM for ATAPI drives
q. quit (abort configuration)

Enter choice: [1] 2

Is your drive on /dev/acd0 a multi-disc changer? [n]
Standard CD drives have a 2048-byte block size.
Does this drive have a non-standard block size? [n]

The configuration disables cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se features:
- The channel routing control.

The CDDA configuration has been set as follows:
- Extraction: FreeBSD ioctl
- Playback: Open Sound System (OSS)

Creating cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xmcd/config/acd0 file...

Do you have more CD drives on your system? [n]

Xmcd set-up is now complete.

Please read cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 DRIVES file supplied with cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 xmcd
distribution for hardware configuration information
about specific drives.

That was it. I can listen to audio CDs on FreeBSD now.

Friday, February 03, 2006

Exporting X Sessions

This is one of those tasks that I want to remember for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 future, because I can imagine encountering cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 same problem again. When I build servers with FreeBSD, I usually do not include packages for X.org. I access my servers using OpenSSH so I don't need any graphics support.

Recently I needed a platform to QEMU. It turns out that QEMU opens an X session. The system where I wanted to run QEMU was a remote server (janney), so I needed to add X support. I figured "If I can export an xterm, I can export QEMU." So, I added cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 xterm package. Here are Xterm's dependencies as reported by pkg_tree:

janney:/home/richard$ pkg_tree xterm
xterm-203
|\__ pkgconfig-0.17.2
|\__ freetype2-2.1.10_1
|\__ expat-1.95.8_3
|\__ fontconfig-2.2.3,1
|\__ xorg-libraries-6.8.2
\__ libXft-2.1.7

So, you can see that installing Xterm added cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 following X.org package:

xorg-libraries-6.8.2 X11 libraries and headers from X.Org

So, I ssh to janney, using cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 -X option to enable X forwarding, and I get this error.

orr:/home/richard$ ssh -X janney -v
OpenSSH_4.2p1 FreeBSD-20050903, OpenSSL 0.9.7e-p1 25 Oct 2004
...edited...
debug1: Next aucá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ntication method: keyboard-interactive
Password:
debug1: Aucá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ntication succeeded (keyboard-interactive).
debug1: channel 0: new [client-session]
debug1: Entering interactive session.
Warning: No xauth data; using fake aucá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ntication data for X11 forwarding.
debug1: Requesting X11 forwarding with aucá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ntication spoofing.
debug1: Remote: No xauth program; cannot forward with spoofing.

That doesn't look good. Here's what happened when I tried to export an xterm.

janney:/home/richard$ xterm
debug1: client_input_channel_open: ctype x11 rchan 3 win 65536 max 16384
debug1: client_request_x11: request from ::1 59764
connect 127.0.0.1 port 6000: Connection refused
debug1: failure x11
X connection to localhost:10.0 broken (explicit kill or server shutdown).

Notice cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 connection attempt to port 6000 TCP. I knew that wasn't right, eicá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r. When forwarding X connections, OpenSSH connects to port 6010 TCP.

I figured I needed to add xauth, and that auth was part of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 xorg-clients package. I added xuath as a package, and saw this pass by on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 screen:

janney:/root# pkg_add -vr xorg-clients
...edited...
x bin/xauth
...truncated...

The next time I tried connecting to janney using ssh -X, I got cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se results:

orr:/home/richard$ ssh -X janney -v
...edited...
debug1: Entering interactive session.
Warning: No xauth data; using fake aucá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ntication data for X11 forwarding.
debug1: Requesting X11 forwarding with aucá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ntication spoofing.

That's better. Now I can see port 6010 TCP listening, and I can export an Xterm, too:

janney:/home/richard$ sockstat -4 | grep sshd
richard sshd 19911 3 tcp4 192.168.2.7:22 192.168.2.5:51330
richard sshd 19911 8 tcp4 127.0.0.1:6010 *:*
root sshd 19908 3 tcp4 192.168.2.7:22 192.168.2.5:51330
root sshd 19858 4 tcp4 *:22 *:*

janney:/home/richard$ xterm
debug1: client_input_channel_open: ctype x11 rchan 3 win 65536 max 16384
debug1: client_request_x11: request from ::1 49825
debug1: channel 1: new [x11]
debug1: confirm x11

You'll remember I wanted to export a QEMU window. I tried doing so:

janney:/home/richard$ qemu -hda freedos.dsk -boot c
debug1: client_input_channel_open: ctype x11 rchan 3 win 65536 max 16384
debug1: client_request_x11: request from ::1 57479
debug1: channel 1: new [x11]
debug1: confirm x11
debug1: channel 1: FORCE input drain
debug1: client_input_channel_open: ctype x11 rchan 4 win 65536 max 16384
debug1: client_request_x11: request from ::1 57480
debug1: channel 2: new [x11]
debug1: confirm x11
debug1: channel 1: free: x11, nchannels 3
debug1: client_input_channel_open: ctype x11 rchan 3 win 65536 max 16384
debug1: client_request_x11: request from ::1 57481
debug1: channel 1: new [x11]
debug1: confirm x11
X Error of failed request: BadWindow (invalid Window parameter)
Major opcode of failed request: 25 (X_SendEvent)
Resource id in failed request: 0x40
Serial number of failed request: 12
Current serial number in output stream: 17
debug1: channel 1: FORCE input drain
debug1: channel 2: FORCE input drain
debug1: channel 1: free: x11, nchannels 3
debug1: channel 2: free: x11, nchannels 2

And nothing happens. That is lousy. It turns out I needed to use cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 -Y switch instead of -X. -Y "Enables trusted X11 forwarding," which I found using cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ssh man page. I figured I would try it.

orr:/home/richard$ ssh -Y janney -v
...connects to janney...
janney:/home/richard$ qemu -hda freedos.dsk -boot c
debug1: client_input_channel_open: ctype x11 rchan 3 win 65536 max 16384
debug1: client_request_x11: request from ::1 57482
debug1: channel 1: new [x11]
debug1: confirm x11
debug1: channel 1: FORCE input drain
debug1: client_input_channel_open: ctype x11 rchan 4 win 65536 max 16384
debug1: client_request_x11: request from ::1 57483
debug1: channel 2: new [x11]
debug1: confirm x11
debug1: channel 1: free: x11, nchannels 3
debug1: client_input_channel_open: ctype x11 rchan 3 win 65536 max 16384
debug1: client_request_x11: request from ::1 57484
debug1: channel 1: new [x11]
debug1: confirm x11

And it works.

The bottom line is that exporting X sessions needs cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 xorg-libraries and xorg-clients packages. Sometimes you have to use -Y instead of -X.

Monday, January 30, 2006

IPv6 Behind NAT Using FreeBSD and Miredo

Thanks to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 generosity of a TaoSecurity Blog reader, I have been experimenting with a dual-stack IPv4 and IPv6 system at a university. I connect to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 IPv4 address using OpenSSH. Once on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 box, I can use IPv6.

I've been looking for ways to connect my home network directly to IPv6. At cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 moment I'm using a common gateway/router to perform NAT for my cable network connection. I needed a way to provide IPv6 for systems behind cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 NAT. Enter Teredo and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Miredo project.

Now, before you decide that I'm giving this protocol my "thumbs up," I'm going to explicitly tell you I just wanted to get cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 software working and use ping6. That's it for now.

Teredo, which is now a draft RFC, is a Microsoft protocol. Basically you take IPv6 traffic, tunnel it in UDP, and send it to a relay server. The relay pulls off cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 UDP and sends cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 traffic using IPv6 to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 destination. The process is reversed for return traffic. Obviously sending your traffic elsewhere, especially to one of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Microsoft relays, is enough to scare most people.

Installing Miredo is simple. Thanks to author Rémi Denis-Courmont responding to my troubleshooting emails, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 latest version compiles flawlessly on FreeBSD 6.0. The standard ./configure, make, make install is all that is needed.

Once installed, I run Miredo in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 foreground.

orr:/home/richard$ sudo miredo --foreground

***********************************************************************
* IMPORTANT NOTICE *
* *
* At cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 time of release of this version of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 program, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 IETF had *
* not yet published cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Teredo protocol specification (RFC). As such, *
* this version of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 program still uses experimental provisional *
* settings, which will most likely be altered when cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 specification *
* is published. A new version of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 program will cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n be released to *
* take cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se changes into consideration. Until cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n, this program *
* might not work properly and should be considered experimental. *
***********************************************************************

miredo[684]: Starting...
miredo[685]: Qualified (NAT type: restricted)
miredo[685]: Teredo pseudo-tunnel started
miredo[685]: (address: 3ffe:831f:8ac3:9ddd:0:3650:ba0c:d759, MTU: 1280)

Miredo creates a tun0 interface for IPv6.

orr:/home/richard$ ifconfig -a
fxp0: flags=8943 mtu 1500
options=8
inet6 fe80::203:47ff:fe0f:1f3c%fxp0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
inet 192.168.2.5 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.2.255
ecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r 00:03:47:0f:1f:3c
media: Ecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365rnet autoselect (100baseTX )
status: active
plip0: flags=108810 mtu 1500
lo0: flags=8049 mtu 16384
inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x3
inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000
tun0: flags=80d1 mtu 1280
inet6 fe80::203:47ff:fe0f:1f3c%tun0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x4
inet6 fe80::5445:5245:444f%tun0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x4
inet6 3ffe:831f:8ac3:9ddd:0:3650:ba0c:d759 prefixlen 32
Opened by PID 685

Teredo encapsulates IPv6 inside UDP packets sent to port 3544.

Here is what it looks like to Tcpdump when Teredo starts. All we can see at this point is Miredo doing a DNS lookup for its default relay server, followed by UDP traffic to that server.

11:08:15.389255 IP 192.168.2.5.64226 > 192.168.2.1.53: 58453+ A? teredo.via.ecp.fr. (35)
11:08:15.394528 IP 192.168.2.1.53 > 192.168.2.5.64226: 58453 1/0/0 A 138.195.157.221 (51)
11:08:15.395024 IP 192.168.2.5.51631 > 138.195.157.221.3544: UDP, length 77
11:08:19.396616 IP 192.168.2.5.51631 > 138.195.157.221.3544: UDP, length 77
11:08:23.396031 IP 192.168.2.5.51631 > 138.195.157.221.3544: UDP, length 77
11:08:27.396404 IP 192.168.2.5.51631 > 138.195.157.222.3544: UDP, length 77
11:08:27.517795 IP 138.195.157.222.3544 > 192.168.2.5.51631: UDP, length 117
11:08:27.518031 IP 192.168.2.5.51631 > 138.195.157.221.3544: UDP, length 77
11:08:27.639923 IP 138.195.157.221.3544 > 192.168.2.5.51631: UDP, length 117
11:09:01.396212 IP 192.168.2.5.51631 > 138.195.157.221.3544: UDP, length 77
11:09:01.514967 IP 138.195.157.221.3544 > 192.168.2.5.51631: UDP, length 117

Tecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365real strips off cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 UDP traffic by default and shows cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 underlying IPv6 traffic. Keep this in mind if you're using Tecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365real and think you're seeing native IPv6. This is cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 same trace as examined above with Tcpdump.

Now with cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 help of Tecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365real, we see Miredo making ICMPv6 router solicitations. Later we see ICMPv6 router advertisements from fe80::8000:dd8:753c:6222.

1 2006-01-30 11:08:15.389255 192.168.2.5 -> 192.168.2.1 DNS Standard query A
teredo.via.ecp.fr
2 2006-01-30 11:08:15.394528 192.168.2.1 -> 192.168.2.5 DNS Standard query response A 138.195.157.221
3 2006-01-30 11:08:15.395024 fe80::8000:5445:5245:444f -> ff02::2 ICMPv6 Router solicitation
4 2006-01-30 11:08:19.396616 fe80::8000:5445:5245:444f -> ff02::2 ICMPv6 Router solicitation
5 2006-01-30 11:08:23.396031 fe80::8000:5445:5245:444f -> ff02::2 ICMPv6 Router solicitation
6 2006-01-30 11:08:27.396404 fe80::5445:5245:444f -> ff02::2 ICMPv6 Router solicitation
7 2006-01-30 11:08:27.517795 fe80::8000:dd8:753c:6222 -> fe80::5445:5245:444f ICMPv6 Router advertisement
8 2006-01-30 11:08:27.518031 fe80::5445:5245:444f -> ff02::2 ICMPv6 Router solicitation
9 2006-01-30 11:08:27.639923 fe80::8000:dd8:753c:6222 -> fe80::5445:5245:444f
ICMPv6 Router advertisement
12 2006-01-30 11:09:01.396212 fe80::5445:5245:444f -> ff02::2 ICMPv6 Router solicitation
13 2006-01-30 11:09:01.514967 fe80::8000:dd8:753c:6222 -> fe80::5445:5245:444f ICMPv6 Router advertisement

Here is what cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 routing table for IPv6 looks like once Miredo is running.

orr:/home/richard$ netstat -nr -f inet6
Routing tables

Internet6:
Destination Gateway Flags Netif Expire
default link#4 ULS tun0
::1 ::1 UH lo0
3ffe:831f::/32 link#4 UC tun0
3ffe:831f:8ac3:9ddd:0:3650:ba0c:d759 link#4 UHL lo0
fe80::%fxp0/64 link#1 UC fxp0
fe80::203:47ff:fe0f:1f3c%fxp0 00:03:47:0f:1f:3c UHL lo0
fe80::%lo0/64 fe80::1%lo0 U lo0
fe80::1%lo0 link#3 UHL lo0
fe80::%tun0/64 link#4 UC tun0
fe80::5445:5245:444f%tun0 link#4 UHL lo0
fe80::203:47ff:fe0f:1f3c%tun0 link#4 UHL lo0
ff01::/32 ::1 U lo0
ff02::%fxp0/32 link#1 UC fxp0
ff02::%lo0/32 ::1 UC lo0
ff02::%tun0/32 link#4 UC tun0

Interface tun0 is cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 default for IPv6. That is good news. Let's try to ping6 an IPv6 enabled host.

orr:/home/richard$ ping6 -c 2 www6.olympus-zone.net
PING6(56=40+8+8 bytes) 3ffe:831f:8ac3:9ddd:0:3650:ba0c:d759 --> 2001:1638:305:4::1
16 bytes from 2001:1638:305:4::1, icmp_seq=0 hlim=56 time=766.023 ms
16 bytes from 2001:1638:305:4::1, icmp_seq=1 hlim=56 time=394.536 ms

--- www6.olympus-zone.net ping6 statistics ---
2 packets transmitted, 2 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 394.536/580.279/766.023/185.744 ms

Awesome. Here is how Tcpdump sees cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 traffic.

11:09:16.646506 IP 192.168.2.5.55205 > 192.168.2.1.53: 58174+ AAAA? www6.olympus-zone.net. (39)
11:09:16.648419 IP 192.168.2.1.53 > 192.168.2.5.55205: 58174 1/0/0 AAAA 2001:1638:305:4::1 (67)
11:09:16.649738 IP 192.168.2.5.51631 > 138.195.157.221.3544: UDP, length 64
11:09:16.977910 IP 138.195.157.221.3544 > 192.168.2.5.51631: UDP, length 48
11:09:16.978090 IP 192.168.2.5.51631 > 213.172.48.140.51246: UDP, length 40
11:09:17.130790 IP 213.172.48.140.51246 > 192.168.2.5.51631: UDP, length 64
11:09:17.130940 IP 192.168.2.5.51631 > 213.172.48.140.51246: UDP, length 56
11:09:17.415124 IP 213.172.48.140.51246 > 192.168.2.5.51631: UDP, length 56
11:09:17.649746 IP 192.168.2.5.51631 > 213.172.48.140.51246: UDP, length 56
11:09:18.043784 IP 213.172.48.140.51246 > 192.168.2.5.51631: UDP, length 56

Packet 3 would appear to be cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ICMPv6 request, with packet 4 cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 response. But what about cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 last 6 packets?

Here is cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 same traffic in Tecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365real.

14 2006-01-30 11:09:16.646506 192.168.2.5 -> 192.168.2.1 DNS Standard query AAAA www6.olympus-zone.net
15 2006-01-30 11:09:16.648419 192.168.2.1 -> 192.168.2.5 DNS Standard query response AAAA 2001:1638:305:4::1
16 2006-01-30 11:09:16.649738 3ffe:831f:8ac3:9ddd:0:3650:ba0c:d759 -> 2001:1638:305:4::1 ICMPv6 Echo request
17 2006-01-30 11:09:16.977910 fe80::8000:5445:5245:444f -> 3ffe:831f:8ac3:9ddd:0:3650:ba0c:d759 IPv6 IPv6 no next header
18 2006-01-30 11:09:16.978090 192.168.2.5 -> 213.172.48.140 UDP Source port: 51631 Destination port: 51246
19 2006-01-30 11:09:17.130790 213.172.48.140 -> 192.168.2.5 UDP Source port: 51246 Destination port: 51631
20 2006-01-30 11:09:17.130940 192.168.2.5 -> 213.172.48.140 UDP Source port: 51631 Destination port: 51246
21 2006-01-30 11:09:17.415124 213.172.48.140 -> 192.168.2.5 UDP Source port: 51246 Destination port: 51631
22 2006-01-30 11:09:17.649746 192.168.2.5 -> 213.172.48.140 UDP Source port: 51631 Destination port: 51246
23 2006-01-30 11:09:18.043784 213.172.48.140 -> 192.168.2.5 UDP Source port: 51246 Destination port: 51631

Tecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365real sees cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ICMPv6 request and reply, but it can't decode cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 last 6 packets.

I plan to investigate this furcá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r.

Saturday, January 28, 2006

QEMU on FreeBSD, with Networking

Maybe you've heard of QEMU, an "open source processor emulator." It's not quite VMware, since cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re doesn't seem to be a concept of persistent state and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re are definitely not snapshots. However, when I saw cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 variety of ready-to-run system images at OSZoo.org, I decided to try it on FreeBSD 6.0.

Luckily cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re are several QEMU ports. I installed emulators/qemu from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 latest FreeBSD 6.0 package. I next installed emulators/kqemu-kmod using cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 port.

janney:/root# cd /usr/ports/emulators/kqemu-kmod
janney:/usr/ports/emulators/kqemu-kmod# make
=> kqemu-0.7.2.tar.gz doesn't seem to exist in /usr/ports/distfiles/kqemu.
=> Attempting to fetch from http://fabrice.bellard.free.fr/qemu/.
kqemu-0.7.2.tar.gz 100% of 77 kB 102 kBps
===> Extracting for kqemu-kmod-0.7.2_1
=> MD5 Checksum OK for kqemu/kqemu-0.7.2.tar.gz.
=> SHA256 Checksum OK for kqemu/kqemu-0.7.2.tar.gz.
===> Patching for kqemu-kmod-0.7.2_1
===> Applying FreeBSD patches for kqemu-kmod-0.7.2_1
===> Configuring for kqemu-kmod-0.7.2_1
===> Building for kqemu-kmod-0.7.2_1
Warning: Object directory not changed from original /usr/ports/emulators/kqemu-kmod/work/kqemu
@ -> /usr/src/sys
machine -> /usr/src/sys/i386/include
cc -O2 -fno-strict-aliasing -pipe -D_KERNEL -DKLD_MODULE -nostdinc -I- -I. -I@
-I@/contrib/altq -I@/../include -I/usr/include -finline-limit=8000 -fno-common
-mno-align-long-strings -mpreferred-stack-boundary=2 -mno-mmx -mno-3dnow -mno-sse -mno-sse2
-ffreestanding -Wall -Wredundant-decls -Wnested-externs -Wstrict-prototypes -Wmissing-prototypes
-Wpointer-arith -Winline -Wcast-qual -fformat-extensions -std=c99 -c kqemu-freebsd.c
ld -d -warn-common -r -d -o kqemu.kld kqemu-mod-i386.o kqemu-freebsd.o
touch export_syms
awk -f /sys/conf/kmod_syms.awk kqemu.kld export_syms | xargs -J% objcopy % kqemu.kld
ld -Bshareable -d -warn-common -o kqemu.ko kqemu.kld
objcopy --strip-debug kqemu.ko
janney:/usr/ports/emulators/kqemu-kmod# make install
===> Installing for kqemu-kmod-0.7.2_1
===> Generating temporary packing list
===> Checking if emulators/kqemu-kmod already installed
install -o root -g wheel -m 555 kqemu.ko /boot/kernel
kldxref /boot/kernel
if mount |/usr/bin/grep ^devfs >/dev/null ; cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n : ; else if [ ! -e /dev/kqemu ]; cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n mknod
/dev/kqemu c 250 0 ; fi ; /bin/chmod 666 /dev/kqemu ; fi
===> Registering installation for kqemu-kmod-0.7.2_1

Next I had to enable network connectivity. The host OS had xl0 as a live interface. QEMU would use cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 tap0 interface.

# cat /dev/null > /dev/tap0
# ifconfig tap0 create

# kldload bridge.ko
# sysctl net.link.ecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r.bridge_cfg=xl0,tap0
net.link.ecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r.bridge_cfg: -> xl0,tap0
# sysctl net.link.ecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r.bridge.enable=1
net.link.ecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r.bridge.enable: 0 -> 1

I needed to create this small script to enable networking as well.

$ cat /etc/qemu-ifup
#!/bin/sh
ifconfig ${1} 0.0.0.0

Now I needed an image to run. I decided to use cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 NetBSD 2.0.2 x86 image, since it wasn't too large and I figured I would be familiar enough with NetBSD once it was running.

After downloading and extracting cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 image, I was ready to try running it.

# qemu -net nic -net tap netbsd_2.0.2.img

Here is cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 initial boot screen.



Now cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 system is booted.



The root login for this system image is "piripicchio" (it's Italian). Once logged in, I configured cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ne2 interface with an IP address on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 same segment as cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 host OS.



Next I added a default route, a nameserver, and a normal user account with a password.

# route add default 192.168.2.1
# echo "nameserver 192.168.2.1" > /etc/resolv.conf
# useradd -m richard
# passwd richard

Now I wanted to enable sshd. After trying to just start cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 daemon, I realized I needed to generate at least a DSA key as shown below.



With sshd listening, I could log in remotely.

$ ssh 192.168.2.77
The aucá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365nticity of host '192.168.2.77 (192.168.2.77)' can't be established.
DSA key fingerprint is 5d:7f:a2:08:b0:3f:f7:e2:45:35:79:60:45:50:09:5d.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.2.77' (DSA) to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 list of known hosts.
richard@192.168.2.77's password:
NetBSD 2.0.2 (GENERIC) #0: Wed Mar 23 08:53:42 UTC 2005

Welcome to NetBSD!

Erase is backspace.
If one studies too zealously, one easily loses his pants.
-- A. Einstein.
: {1} uname -a
NetBSD 2.0.2 NetBSD 2.0.2 (GENERIC) #0: Wed Mar 23 08:53:42 UTC 2005
jmc@faith.netbsd.org:/home/builds/ab/netbsd-2-0-2-RELEASE/i386/200503220140Z
-obj/home/builds/ab/netbsd-2-0-2-RELEASE/src/sys/arch/i386/compile/GENERIC i386
: {2} df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
/dev/wd0a 846M 291M 513M 36% /
kernfs 1.0K 1.0K 0B 100% /kern

I think that is pretty cool for a free virtual machine. As I learn more about QEMU I will share it here.

I found cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se three posts to be helpful when getting QEMU working.

Wednesday, January 18, 2006

Burning DVDs in FreeBSD

Here are cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 steps I took to create a DVD using a Plextor 708UF DVD burner connected to my ancient laptop over Firewire through an Adaptec DuoConnect PC Card Adapter. First I installed sysutils/dvd+rw-tools as a package. Next I placed all of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 files I wanted backed up into /mnt/.burn_to_dvd/ and proceeded to use growisofs.

orr:/root# growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/cd0 -J -R /mnt/.burn_to_dvd/
Executing 'mkisofs -J -R /mnt/.burn_to_dvd/ | builtin_dd of=/dev/pass1 obs=32k seek=0'
:-( /dev/pass1: 2297888 blocks are free, 2637323 to be written
:-( write failed: No space left on device

Oops. I put too many files into cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 directory. They are larger than cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 DVD capacity of 4.3 GB. After removing a file, I proceed to burn cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 DVD.

orr:/mnt# du -h .burn_to_dvd/
4.2G .burn_to_dvd/
orr:/mnt# growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/cd0 -J -R /mnt/.burn_to_dvd/
Executing 'mkisofs -J -R /mnt/.burn_to_dvd/ | builtin_dd of=/dev/pass1 obs=32k seek=0'
/dev/pass1: "Current Write Speed" is 4.1x1385KBps.
0.23% done, estimate finish Wed Jan 18 01:13:59 2006
0.46% done, estimate finish Wed Jan 18 00:26:30 2006
0.68% done, estimate finish Wed Jan 18 00:13:16 2006
...edited..
99.83% done, estimate finish Tue Jan 17 23:59:08 2006
Total translation table size: 0
Total rockridge attributes bytes: 906
Total directory bytes: 0
Path table size(bytes): 10
Max brk space used c704
2193835 extents written (4284 MB)
builtin_dd: 2193840*2KB out @ average 0.4x1385KBps
/dev/pass1: flushing cache
/dev/pass1: updating RMA
/dev/pass1: closing disc

I'm able to mount cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 new DVD and check its capacity.

orr:/mnt# mount -t cd9660 /dev/cd0 /cdrom
orr:/mnt# df -h /cdrom
Filesystem Size Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
/dev/cd0 4.2G 4.2G 0B 100% /cdrom

That's it -- very simple.

Tuesday, January 17, 2006

Simple Local Rsync Use

Earlier this month I posted how I use rdiff-backup to keep a copy of files on a remote system, along with incremental changes. I also have an external USB/Firewire 2.5 inch hard drive that holds older files. I decided I wanted to copy all of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 files from my laptop hard drive that were not present on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 external hard drive.

The local data is stored in /data and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 external drive is located at /mnt. I keep identical directories on each partition.

orr:/home/richard$ ls /data
Recycled iso misc tmp writing
code lpc test vmware zip
documents media tgz work
orr:/home/richard$ ls /mnt
Recycled iso misc tmp writing
code lpc test vmware zip
documents media tgz work

I decided to use Rsync to get cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 files not on /mnt from /data to /mnt. In cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 following example I copy files involving cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 /data/documents directory.

orr:/data$ rsync -vr /data/documents/* /mnt/documents
building file list ... done
doc/DYNAMIC HOST CONFIGURATION PROTOCOL.doc
doc/Speaker Submission form.doc
doc/bejtlich_proposal_issa-denver_2005.doc
doc/bejtlich_proposal_technosecurity_2006.doc
...edited...
txt/why_CREATE.txt
xls/SCCNS_Chapters.xls
xls/remember.xls

sent 26401643 bytes received 2518 bytes 621274.38 bytes/sec
total size is 190958410 speedup is 7.23

When finished, /mnt/documents has all of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 files it originally had, along with cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 new files found in /data/documents. I like this system because rsync will create new directories, if needed, on /mnt to hold new files.

Next I will burn cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 contents of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 /mnt directories to DVD for long-term storage.

Monday, January 09, 2006

Trying Stow

Today transzorp in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 #snort-gui channel convinced me to try Stow (sysutils/stow), described as "a program for managing cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 installation of software packages, keeping cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m separate (/usr/local/stow/emacs vs. /usr/local/stow/perl, for example) while making cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m appear to be installed in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 same place (/usr/local)."

First I installed cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Stow package and made a directory.

# setenv PACKAGESITE ftp://ftp2.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-5-stable/Latest/
orr:/root# pkg_add -vr stow
# mkdir /usr/local/stow

Here is running Stow with no switches.

$ stow
stow: No packages named
stow (GNU Stow) version 1.3.3

Usage: stow [OPTION ...] PACKAGE ...
-n, --no Do not actually make changes
-c, --conflicts Scan for conflicts, implies -n
-d DIR, --dir=DIR Set stow dir to DIR (default is current dir)
-t DIR, --target=DIR Set target to DIR (default is parent of stow dir)
-v, --verbose[=N] Increase verboseness (levels are 0,1,2,3;
-v or --verbose adds 1; --verbose=N sets level)
-D, --delete Unstow instead of stow
-R, --restow Restow (like stow -D followed by stow)
-V, --version Show Stow version number
-h, --help Show this help

Next I tested Stow while installing Tcpxtract (which was recently added to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 FreeBSD ports tree, but I'll just install cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 source code here).

$ tar -xzf tcpxtract-1.0.1.tar.gz
$ cd tcpxtract-1.0.1
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/stow/tcpxtract-1.0.1
$ make
$ sudo make install
test -z "/usr/local/stow/tcpxtract-1.0.1/bin" || /home/richard/tcpxtract-1.0.1/install-sh -d
"/usr/local/stow/tcpxtract-1.0.1/bin"
/usr/bin/install -c 'tcpxtract' '/usr/local/stow/tcpxtract-1.0.1/bin/tcpxtract'
test -z "/usr/local/stow/tcpxtract-1.0.1/etc" || /home/richard/tcpxtract-1.0.1/install-sh -d
"/usr/local/stow/tcpxtract-1.0.1/etc"
/usr/bin/install -c -m 644 'tcpxtract.conf' '/usr/local/stow/tcpxtract-1.0.1/etc/tcpxtract.conf'
test -z "/usr/local/stow/tcpxtract-1.0.1/man/man1" || /home/richard/tcpxtract-1.0.1/install-sh -d
"/usr/local/stow/tcpxtract-1.0.1/man/man1"
/usr/bin/install -c -m 644 './tcpxtract.1' '/usr/local/stow/tcpxtract-1.0.1/man/man1/tcpxtract.1'
$ cd /usr/local/stow
$ sudo stow tcpxtract-1.0.1
stow: CONFLICT: /usr/local/stow/tcpxtract-1.0.1/bin/tcpxtract vs. /usr/local/bin/tcpxtract

What's that? Oh, I forgot I already installed Tcpxtract on this box, in /usr/local/src/, so I have to remove that for Stow to work.

$ cd /usr/local/src/tcpxtract-1.0.1
$ sudo make uninstall
rm -f '/usr/local/bin/tcpxtract'
rm -f '/usr/local/man/man1/tcpxtract.1'
rm -f '/usr/local/etc/tcpxtract.conf'

Now I can Stow Tcpxtract.

$ cd /usr/local/stow
$ sudo stow tcpxtract-1.0.1
$ cd tcpxtract-1.0.1/
$ ls -alR
total 10
drwxr-xr-x 5 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 .
drwxr-xr-x 3 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 ..
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 bin
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 etc
drwxr-xr-x 3 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 man

./bin:
total 58
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 .
drwxr-xr-x 5 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 ..
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 54923 Jan 9 16:58 tcpxtract

./etc:
total 8
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 .
drwxr-xr-x 5 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 2764 Jan 9 16:58 tcpxtract.conf

./man:
total 6
drwxr-xr-x 3 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 .
drwxr-xr-x 5 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 ..
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 man1

./man/man1:
total 6
drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 .
drwxr-xr-x 3 root wheel 512 Jan 9 16:58 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 1036 Jan 9 16:58 tcpxtract.1

Tcpxtract is now installed.

$ which tcpxtract
/usr/local/bin/tcpxtract
$ ls -al /usr/local/bin/tcpxtract
lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 37 Jan 9 17:04 /usr/local/bin/tcpxtract ->
../stow/tcpxtract-1.0.1/bin/tcpxtract

To remove Tcpxtract, I do this in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 /usr/local/stow directory:

$ sudo stow -D tcpxtract-1.0.1/
$ which tcpxtract

To reinstall, it's easy:

$ stow -R tcpxtract-1.0.1
$ which tcpxtract
/usr/local/bin/tcpxtract

transzorp says "I use Stow to upgrade sensors... I just build cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 latest software into new dirs under /usr/local/stow and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n do a stow -D followed by a stow package-new.version."

I plan to see how best I can use this software when handling source code.

Impressive Debian Upgrade

I've previously posted about running Debian on my October 1994-era 90 MHz Pentium Quantex QP5/90 PM-3 with 80 MB RAM. I hadn't booted cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 box since June 2004. Today while reading a book on Debian I decided to try upgrading to Debian stable, also known as sarge or 3.1 at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 moment.

When I started cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 process, this was my uname output:

Linux oates 2.4.18-1-386 #1 Wed Apr 14 17:34:59 UTC 2004 i586 GNU/Linux


This is all I had to do:

cat /etc/apt/sources.list

deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian sarge main non-free contrib
deb http://non-us.debian.org/debian-non-US sarge/non-US main contrib non-free

# apt-get update

# apt-get --show-upgraded upgrade
Building Dependency Tree... Done
The following packages have been kept back:
honeyd libldap2 libopencdk8 lilo mutt
The following packages will be upgraded:
adduser apt apt-utils aptitude ash base-config base-files base-passwd bash
...edited...
util-linux wget whiptail zlib1g
125 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 5 not upgraded.
Need to get 42.9MB of archives.
After unpacking 4365kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n]
...

# apt-get dist-upgrade
# apt-cache search kernel-image-2.4
...edited...
kernel-image-2.4.27-2-386 - Linux kernel image for version 2.4.27 on 386
kernel-image-2.4.27-2-586tsc - Linux kernel image for version 2.4.27 on Pentium-
Classic
kernel-image-2.4.27-2-686 - Linux kernel image for version 2.4.27 on PPro/Celero
n/PII/PIII/P4
...
# apt-get install kernel-image-2.4.27-2-386

At cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 end of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 process I added a line to /etc/kernel-img.conf to address a warning I didn't need to see in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 future.

echo "do_initrd = Yes" >> /etc/kernel-img.conf

When I was done, this was my uname output:

Linux oates 2.4.27-2-386 #1 Wed Aug 17 09:33:35 UTC 2005 i586 GNU/Linux
$ cat /etc/debian_version
3.1

These steps happened without any problems. I was prompted to answer a few questions along cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 way, but accepting cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 defaults in each case was sufficient. The process only took a few hours. I am very impressed. Debian seems like an excellent choice for ancient hardware.

Monday, January 02, 2006

Simple Backups with rdiff-backup

I admit I am not vigilant enough when it comes to backing up personal files. For cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 new year I decided to at least keep a copy of important directories on a backup server, and keep those copies fairly fresh. rsync initially seemed attractive, thanks to its ability to transfer only incremental changes to files. Upon furcá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r reflection it didn't meet my needs. For example, if I delete a file from a directory and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n rsync it, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 file will be deleted from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 backup server.

Today I learned of rdiff-backup, in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ports tree as sysutils/rdiff-backup. This program makes incremental backups of files, but it also supports restoring old versions of files and even deleted files.

In cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 following example, I want to back up selected directories in my /data partition on laptop orr. Here are cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 contents of /data:

orr:/data$ ls
Recycled iso misc vmware zip
code lpc tgz work
documents media tmp writing

I invoke rdiff-backup by telling it to exclude certain directories, include everything else in /data, and send backups to server janney in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 /home/richard/rdiff-backup_orr directory:

orr:/data$ rdiff-backup --exclude /data/Recycled/ --exclude /data/iso/ --exclude /data/media/audio/
--exclude /data/media/video/ --exclude /data/misc --exclude /data/tgz --exclude /data/tmp/
--exclude /data/vmware --exclude /data/zip /data janney::/home/richard/rdiff-backup_orr

I get a password prompt, which is an indication that rdiff-backup is using SSH to copy files from orr to janney.

When this is done, I have cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 following on janney:

janney:/home/richard/rdiff-backup_orr$ ls
code media writing
documents rdiff-backup-data
lpc work

Those are cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 directories I wanted backed up. A look into cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 rdiff-backup-data directory gives some insight into rddiff-backup's workings.

janney:/home/richard/rdiff-backup_orr$ ls -al rdiff-backup-data/
total 94
drwx------ 3 richard richard 512 Jan 2 13:36 .
drwxrwxrwx 9 richard richard 512 Jan 1 1980 ..
-rw------- 1 richard richard 0 Jan 2 11:34 backup.log
-rw------- 1 richard richard 0 Jan 2 11:34 chars_to_quote
-rw------- 1 richard richard 10 Jan 2 13:36 current_mirror.2006-01-02T11:34:22-05:00.data
-rw------- 1 richard richard 110 Jan 2 13:36 error_log.2006-01-02T11:34:22-05:00.data.gz
-rw------- 1 richard richard 34536 Jan 2 13:36 file_statistics.2006-01-02T11:34:22-05:00.data.gz
drwx------ 2 richard richard 512 Jan 2 11:34 increments
-rw------- 1 richard richard 48537 Jan 2 13:36 mirror_metadata.2006-01-02T11:34:22-05:00.snapshot.gz
-rw------- 1 richard richard 516 Jan 2 13:36 session_statistics.2006-01-02T11:34:22-05:00.data

The session.statistics file has information on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 last backup.

janney:/home/richard/rdiff-backup_orr/rdiff-backup-data$ cat session_statistics.2006-01-02T11:34:22-05:00.data
StartTime 1136219662.00 (Mon Jan 2 11:34:22 2006)
EndTime 1136226986.54 (Mon Jan 2 13:36:26 2006)
ElapsedTime 7324.54 (2 hours 2 minutes 4.54 seconds)
SourceFiles 3023
SourceFileSize 3312777703 (3.09 GB)
MirrorFiles 1
MirrorFileSize 0 (0 bytes)
NewFiles 3022
NewFileSize 3312777703 (3.09 GB)
DeletedFiles 0
DeletedFileSize 0 (0 bytes)
ChangedFiles 1
ChangedSourceSize 0 (0 bytes)
ChangedMirrorSize 0 (0 bytes)
IncrementFiles 0
IncrementFileSize 0 (0 bytes)
TotalDestinationSizeChange 3312777703 (3.09 GB)
Errors 0

Let's say I now return to laptop orr. These are cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 contents of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 lpc directory.

orr:/data/lpc$ ls
aggtap-hub.lpc httprint.lpc
bgp-dos.taosecurity.lpc ldp-dos.taosecurity.lpc

For purposes of demonstration, I delete cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 httprint.lpc file.

orr:/data/lpc$ rm httprint.lpc
orr:/data/lpc$ ls
aggtap-hub.lpc bgp-dos.taosecurity.lpc ldp-dos.taosecurity.lpc

I cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n invoke cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 same command line to run rdiff-backup (shown previously). It only takes rdiff-backup about 30 seconds to realize only one change has been made to orr -- cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 delete of /data/lpc/httprint.lpc. A look in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 backup directory on janney shows httprint.lpc has disappeared.

janney:/home/richard/rdiff-backup_orr$ ls lpc/
aggtap-hub.lpc bgp-dos.taosecurity.lpc ldp-dos.taosecurity.lpc

A look at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 new rdiff-backup statistics show how fast cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 update happened.

janney:/home/richard/rdiff-backup_orr/rdiff-backup-data$ cat session_statistics.2006-01-02T13:41:37-05:00.data
StartTime 1136227297.00 (Mon Jan 2 13:41:37 2006)
EndTime 1136227314.64 (Mon Jan 2 13:41:54 2006)
ElapsedTime 17.64 (17.64 seconds)
SourceFiles 3022
SourceFileSize 3312723832 (3.09 GB)
MirrorFiles 3023
MirrorFileSize 3312777703 (3.09 GB)
NewFiles 0
NewFileSize 0 (0 bytes)
DeletedFiles 1
DeletedFileSize 53871 (52.6 KB)
ChangedFiles 2
ChangedSourceSize 0 (0 bytes)
ChangedMirrorSize 0 (0 bytes)
IncrementFiles 3
IncrementFileSize 8978 (8.77 KB)
TotalDestinationSizeChange -44893 (-43.8 KB)
Errors 0

Can I recover httprint.lpc? Yes, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 file remains in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 increments directory kept by rdiff-backup.

janney:/home/richard/rdiff-backup_orr/rdiff-backup-data/increments/lpc$ ls -al
total 14
drwx------ 2 richard richard 512 Jan 2 13:41 .
drwx------ 3 richard richard 512 Jan 2 13:41 ..
-rwxrwxrwx 1 richard richard 8978 Dec 29 16:22 httprint.lpc.2006-01-02T11:34:22-05:00.snapshot.gz

This means I can restore it. I tell rdiff-backup to look for httprint.lpc from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 following day, which for my purposes will find cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 file I need.

orr:/data/lpc$ rdiff-backup -r 1D janney::/home/richard/rdiff-backup_orr/lpc/httprint.lpc /tmp/httprint.lpc

That's it. When finished, cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 file is restored.

orr:/data/lpc$ ls -al /tmp/httprint.lpc
-rwxrwxrwx 1 richard wheel 53871 Dec 29 16:22 /tmp/httprint.lpc
orr:/data/lpc$ file /tmp/httprint.lpc
/tmp/httprint.lpc: tcpdump capture file (little-endian) - version 2.4 (Ecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365rnet, capture length 1515)

I would note that I had trouble restoring cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 file to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 original location. Therefore, I put it in /tmp in this demonstration.

rdiff-backup can be run where cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 backup server polls cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 laptop, as well.

This is only scratching cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 surface of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 backup issue, but I now have a simple yet thorough backup solution to run at cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 end of every day.

Saturday, December 03, 2005

Adding Multiple Users and Setting Quotas on FreeBSD

I am setting up a VM for students in my USENIX LISA classes next week. While I would prefer students to use tools on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ir own laptops to analyze packet traces I provide, I realize some may not be able to get all of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 requisite software working. Racá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r than leave cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365m stranded, I am deploying a FreeBSD 6.0 VM that will run on my laptop. Students can SSH to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 VM and analyze traces cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365re. Alternatively, I plan to create a simple VM that students can run in VMware Player.

I decided I would create 33 student accounts, named student0 - student32. I would perform demos as student0. I was not about to run adduser 33 times to create cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 necessary accounts, so cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 following shows how I added those accounts using a simple shell script.

First I created a default configuration file using cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 -C switch.

samsonov:/root# adduser -C
Login group []:
Enter additional groups []:
Login class [default]:
Shell (sh csh tcsh bash nologin) [sh]: bash
Home directory [/home/]:
Use password-based aucá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ntication? [yes]:
Use an empty password? (yes/no) [no]:
Use a random password? (yes/no) [no]:
Lock out cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 account after creation? [no]:
Pass Type : yes
Class :
Groups :
Home : /home/
Shell : /usr/local/bin/bash
Locked : no
OK? (yes/no): yes
Re-edit cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 default configuration? (yes/no): no
Goodbye!

Next I tested out creating cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 student0 account using cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 pw command. The syntax says add user student0, with password same as cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 username (-w yes), create cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 home directory /home/student0, and set student0 as cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 GECOS field. (Obviously a student0/student0 username/password combination is not suitable in production, but it's just what I want in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 classroom.)

samsonov:/root# pw useradd student0 -w yes -m -c student0

Now I test to see that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 process worked by checking for a new /etc/passwd entry and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 appropriate home directory.

samsonov:/root# grep student0 /etc/passwd
student0:*:1002:1002:student0:/home/student0:/bin/sh
samsonov:/root# ls -al /home/student0/
total 20
drwxr-xr-x 2 student0 student0 512 Dec 3 21:00 .
drwxr-xr-x 5 root wheel 512 Dec 3 21:00 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 student0 student0 767 Dec 3 21:00 .cshrc
-rw-r--r-- 1 student0 student0 248 Dec 3 21:00 .login
-rw-r--r-- 1 student0 student0 158 Dec 3 21:00 .login_conf
-rw------- 1 student0 student0 373 Dec 3 21:00 .mail_aliases
-rw-r--r-- 1 student0 student0 331 Dec 3 21:00 .mailrc
-rw-r--r-- 1 student0 student0 797 Dec 3 21:00 .profile
-rw------- 1 student0 student0 276 Dec 3 21:00 .rhosts
-rw-r--r-- 1 student0 student0 975 Dec 3 21:00 .shrc

It looks like pw worked as advertised. Next I write a simple while loop shell script to create users student1-student32.

samsonov:/root# cat add_multiple_users.sh
#!/usr/local/bin/bash
i=1
while [ $i -lt 33 ]
do
pw useradd student$i -w yes -m -c student$i
i=$[$i+1]
done

After running cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 script, I see my new users are added.

samsonov:/root# tail /etc/passwd
student23:*:1025:1025:student23:/home/student23:/bin/sh
student24:*:1026:1026:student24:/home/student24:/bin/sh
student25:*:1027:1027:student25:/home/student25:/bin/sh
student26:*:1028:1028:student26:/home/student26:/bin/sh
student27:*:1029:1029:student27:/home/student27:/bin/sh
student28:*:1030:1030:student28:/home/student28:/bin/sh
student29:*:1031:1031:student29:/home/student29:/bin/sh
student30:*:1032:1032:student30:/home/student30:/bin/sh
student31:*:1033:1033:student31:/home/student31:/bin/sh
student32:*:1034:1034:student32:/home/student32:/bin/sh

samsonov:/root# ls /home/
.snap student13 student2 student26 student32
richard student14 student20 student27 student4
student0 student15 student21 student28 student5
student1 student16 student22 student29 student6
student10 student17 student23 student3 student7
student11 student18 student24 student30 student8
student12 student19 student25 student31 student9

At this point I have my users. Now I turn to setting up per-user quotas. I do not want a rogue user to decide to use up all of /home, so I need a mechanism to enfore a per-user disk usage quota. I do that with file system quotas.

I have to add 'options QUOTA' to my kernel configuration file, and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n rebuild cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 kernel to enforce quotas. I also need to add cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 following to /etc/rc.conf:

enable_quotas="YES"
check_quotas="NO"

After rebooting, quotas are enabled.

samsonov:/root# quota -v
quota: /home/quota.user: No such file or directory
Disk quotas for user root (uid 0): none

Now I can set a quota for student0. I set a soft limit of 100MB and a hard limit of 120MB.

samsonov:/root# edquota -u student0
edquota: creating quota file /home/quota.user

Quotas for user student0:
/home: kbytes in use: 0, limits (soft = 100000, hard = 120000)
inodes in use: 0, limits (soft = 0, hard = 0)

Checking cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 quotas, I see cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365y are working.

samsonov:/root# quota -v student0
Disk quotas for user student0 (uid 1002):
Filesystem usage quota limit grace files quota limit grace
/home 0 100000 120000 0 0 0

The easiest way to set cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 same quotas for students1-32 is to use cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 -p option to specify a user whose quota one wants to duplicate, followed by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 UIDs of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 users to which cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 new quota will be applied.

samsonov:/root# edquota -p student0 1002-1034

Now I check to see if student1 has cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 same quotas as student0.

samsonov:/root# quota -v student1
Disk quotas for user student1 (uid 1003):
Filesystem usage quota limit grace files quota limit grace
/home 0 100000 120000 0 0 0

All done!

Thursday, November 10, 2005

Deleting Hard Drives

Today cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 subject of deleting hard drives was raised in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 #snort-gui IRC channel. jrk and geek00L mentioned using Darik's Boot and Nuke (DBAN), an open source (GPL) "self-contained boot floppy that securely wipes cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 hard disks of most computers."

I found DBAN very easy to use. It boasts some impressive features too.

When you boot from cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 floppy image or CD-ROM .iso you see this screen.



The About screen offers warnings and caveats.



I like cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ability to boot using one of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 available deletion methods.



I simply hit [enter], which started DBAN in interactive mode. Here you can set parameters for wiping cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 drive.



In cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 future I plan to carry a DBAN floppy with me to wipe hard drives prior to installing my own NSM software.

Monday, August 22, 2005

Windows Remote Administration Options

This morning I worked with several remote administration tools on my Windows Server 2003 system. First I enabled cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 native Remote Desktop (aka Terminal Services) capability via My Computer -> Properties -> Remote

At this point I am only letting administrator connect remotely. Since administrator can connect remotely by default once cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 service is activated, I didn't need to make any ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r changes. Once Remote Desktop is listening, it will appear active on port 3389 TCP.

To access cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Windows server remotely from Unix using cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 RDP protocol, I use Rdesktop. It's available in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 FreeBSD ports tree as net/rdesktop. I like cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 option to change screen geometry, e.g., 'rdesktop -g 80% 192.168.2.2'.

To access cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 RDP server from my Windows 2000 laptop, I installed cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 MSRDPCLI.EXE package.

Next I tried RealVNC. This program has client and server components. I installed cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 entire package on cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Windows server. Setup is fairly simple, and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 server should be configured to accept clients that enter a pre-defined password. RealVNC starts two listening services. One can access a Web page with a Java-enabled VNC service on port 5800 TCP. The default native VNC server listens on port 5900 TCP.

To access cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Windows server remotely from Unix using cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 VNC protocol, I use vncviewer, packaged with RealVNC. It's available in cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 FreeBSD ports tree as net/vnc. To send ctrl-alt-delete through VNC, I like to hit cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 F8 key to bring up a VNC menu, through which I select "Send ctrl-alt-del".

There is an importance difference between using RDP and VNC on Windows Server 2003. RDP is a Terminal Services application, which allows multiple users to remotely interact with cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 server. VNC takes control of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 physical desktop. For example, I was able to run one RDP instance and cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n use VNC to connect to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 server. Neicá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r session was interrupted by cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r. Also, RDP seems to be more efficient and responsive, although I have not sought to tweak VNC.

Note that (thanks to comments from Blog readers), I found Rdesktop allows one to "attach to console" if passed cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 -0 command, like this:

rdesktop -0 192.168.2.2

This eliminates cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 need to use VNC, in my opinion.

I noticed that I could not get VMWare to start a guest OS when I was logged in to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 Windows Server 2003 box using RDP (not attached to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 console). I could start a guest when logged in using VNC. I typically set a screen geometry because VNC doesn't appear to have a menu option for it, e.g. 'vncviewer geometry="1024X768"'.

With rdesktop -O, I can attach to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 console and hence start VMs properly over RDP.

inally I installed OpenSSH. I considered installing cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 SSH for Windows package, which is a stripped-down Cygwin version. Since that program had not been updated in over a year (i.e., 3.8.1), I decided to use cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 complete Cygwin version. Nicholas Fong's guide was extremely helpful.

I followed all of his instructions. Remember to add a new environment variable where 'variable name' is CYGWIN and 'variable value' is ntsec tty. Also add ';c:\cygwin\bin' to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 PATH.

I noticed a different set of prompts when I ran 'ssh-host-config', so here is how I proceeded.

$ ssh-host-config
Generating /etc/ssh_host_key
Generating /etc/ssh_host_rsa_key
Generating /etc/ssh_host_dsa_key
Generating /etc/ssh_config file
Privilege separation is set to yes by default since OpenSSH 3.3.
However, this requires a non-privileged account called 'sshd'.
For more info on privilege separation read /usr/share/doc/openssh/README.privsep.

Should privilege separation be used? (yes/no) yes
Warning: The following function requires administrator privileges!
Should this script create a local user 'sshd' on this machine? (yes/no) yes
Generating /etc/sshd_config file

Warning: The following functions require administrator privileges!

Do you want to install sshd as service?
(Say "no" if it's already installed as service) (yes/no) yes

You appear to be running Windows 2003 Server or later. On 2003 and
later systems, it's not possible to use cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 LocalSystem account
if sshd should allow passwordless logon (e. g. public key aucá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ntication).
If you want to enable that functionality, it's required to create a new
account 'sshd_server' with special privileges, which is cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365n used to run
cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 sshd service under.

Should this script create a new local account 'sshd_server' which has
cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 required privileges? (yes/no) yes

Please enter a password for new user 'sshd_server'. Please be sure that
this password matches cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 password rules given on your system.
Entering no password will exit cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 configuration. PASSWORD=obscured

User 'sshd_server' has been created with password 'obscured'.
If you change cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 password, please keep in mind to change cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 password
for cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 sshd service, too.

Also keep in mind that cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 user sshd_server needs read permissions on all
users' .ssh/authorized_keys file to allow public key aucá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365ntication for
cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se users!. (Re-)running ssh-user-config for each user will set cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365
required permissions correctly.

Which value should cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 environment variable CYGWIN have when
sshd starts? It's recommended to set at least "ntsec" to be
able to change user context without password.
Default is "ntsec". CYGWIN=

The service has been installed under sshd_server account.
To start cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 service, call `net start sshd' or `cygrunsrv -S sshd'.

Host configuration finished. Have fun!

Administrator@moog ~
$ net start sshd
The CYGWIN sshd service is starting.
The CYGWIN sshd service was started successfully.

Using SSH to access Windows is cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 most bandwidth-efficient remote access system possible.

ssh administrator@192.168.2.2
administrator@192.168.2.2's password:
Last login: Mon Aug 22 06:20:58 2005 from 192.168.2.5

Administrator@moog ~
$ df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
C:\cygwin\bin 9.8G 5.1G 4.7G 53% /usr/bin
C:\cygwin\lib 9.8G 5.1G 4.7G 53% /usr/lib
C:\cygwin 9.8G 5.1G 4.7G 53% /
c: 9.8G 5.1G 4.7G 53% /cygdrive/c
g: 60G 53G 7.3G 88% /cygdrive/g
h: 70G 50G 20G 73% /cygdrive/h

Administrator@moog ~
$ who
sshd_server tty0 Aug 22 06:20 (MOOG)
Administrator tty1 Aug 22 06:56 (192.168.2.5)

It appears cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 'who' command is not aware of an existing RDP session.

I was hoping I would find an easy way to configure Windows through a serial port. Unfortunately, Windows is not Unix. The closest approximation I found was Emergency Management Services (EMS), which requires mocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365rboard support. EMS is definitely not as simple as modifying /etc/ttys.

I'm concerned with remote administration because this Windows server is in my lab. Also, I am trying to imagine cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 best way to change cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 system's IP address remotely, or at least in a headless situation. For example: I bring my Shuttle Windows server to class. The box has no monitor. I decide I need to change cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 system's IP address to use DHCP in a classroom setting, or to set a new static IP address. Using my laptop, I connect to cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 server (using on of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se methods) and change cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 IP.

I plan to use one or more of cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se netsh commands. I can run cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365se as a batch file or through cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 scheduler.

netsh interface ip show config

netsh interface ip set address name="Local Area Connection" static 192.168.0.100
255.255.255.0 192.168.0.1 1

netsh -c interface dump > c:\location1.txt

netsh -f c:\location1.txt

netsh interface ip set address "Local Area Connection" dhcp

netsh interface ip set dns "Local Area Connection" static 192.168.0.200

netsh interface ip set dns "Local Area Connection" dhcp

These are not cá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365 actual commands I would run, only examples of what is possible.

From a Windows system, one ocá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365r option exists: PsExec. For example:

C:\Program Files\pstools>psexec \\192.168.2.2 -u administrator -p "password"
cmd.exe /c cmd.exe

PsExec v1.58 - Execute processes remotely
Copyright (C) 2001-2005 Mark Russinovich
Sysinternals - www.sysinternals.com

Microsoft Windows [Version 5.2.3790]
(C) Copyright 1985-2003 Microsoft Corp.

C:\WINDOWS\system32>cd
C:\>ipconfig

Windows IP Configuration

Ecá cược thể thao bet365_cách nạp tiền vào bet365_ đăng ký bet365rnet adapter Local Area Connection:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.2.2
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.2.1


Does anyone have any suggestions?